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Unformatted text preview: ational assessment techniques on infants must not over generalize and must base their conclusions on data from many studies.
○On the basis of the data from one or two studies, it seems that some infants develop a particular perceptual ability not observed in others.
○To use data from one or two studies on infant's perceptual abilities, it is necessary to use techniques that will provide conclusive evidence.
○When researchers fail to make generalizations from their studies, their observed data is often inconclusive.
Paragraph 3 在 Observational assessment techniques have become much more sophisticated, reducing the limitations just presented. Film analysis of the infant's responses, heart and respiration rate monitors, and nonnutntive sucking devices are used as effective tools in understanding infant perception. Film analysis permits researchers to carefully study the infant's responses over and over and in slow motion. Precise measurements can be made of the length and frequency of the infant's attention between two stimuli. Heart and respiration monitors provide the investigator with the number of heartbeats or breaths taken when a new stimulus is presented. Numerical increases are used as quantifiable indicators of heightened interest in the new stimulus. Increases in nonnutntive sucking were first used as an assessment measure by researchers in 1969. They devised an apparatus that connected a baby's pacifier to a counting device. As stimuli were presented, changes in the infant's sucking behavior were recorded. Increases in the number of sucks were used as an indicator of the infant's attention to or preference for a given visual display.
7. What is the author's primary purpose in paragraph 3?
○To explain why researchers must conduct more than one type of study when they are attempting to understand infant perception
○To describe new techniques for observing infant perception that overcome problems identified in the previous paragraph
○To present and evaluate the conclusions of various studies on infant perception
○To point out the strengths and weaknesses of three new methods for quantifying an infant's reaction to stimuli
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8. The word quantifiable in the passage is closest in meaning to
9. Paragraph 3 mentions all of the following as indications of an infant's heightened interest in a new stimulus EXCEPT an increase in
○the number of breaths taken
Paragraph 4在Two additional techniques of studying infant perception have come into vogue. The first is the habituationdishabituation technique, in which a single stimulus is presented repeatedly to the infant until there is a measurable decline (habituation) in whatever attending behavior is being observed. At that point a new stimulus is presented, and any recovery (dishabituation) in responsiveness is recorded. If the infant fails to dishabituate and continues to show habituation with the new stimulus, it is assumed that the baby is un...
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- Fall '13