文勇的新托福黄金&ccedil

topreventerosionbythewind

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Unformatted text preview: ased to consider certain rites essential to their well­being and abandoned them, nevertheless, they retained as parts of their oral tradition the myths that had grown up around the rites and admired them for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness. Paragraph 1: 在 In seeking to describe the origins of theater, one must rely primarily on speculation, since there is little concrete evidence on which to draw. The most widely accepted theory, championed by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, envisions theater as emerging out of myth and ritual. The process perceived by these anthropologists may be summarized briefly. During the early stages of its development, a society becomes aware of forces that appear to influence or control its food supply and well­being. Having little understanding of natural causes, it attributes both desirable and undesirable occurrences to supernatural or magical forces, and it searches for means to win the favor of these forces. Perceiving an apparent connection between certain actions performed by the group and the result it desires, the group repeats, refines and formalizes those actions into fixed ceremonies, or rituals. 1. The word “championed” in the passage is closest in meaning to ○Changed ○Debated ○Created ○Supported 2. The word “attributes” in the passage is closest in meaning to ○Ascribes ○Leaves ○Limits ○Contrasts 3. According to paragraph 1, theories of the origins of theater ○Are mainly hypothetical ○Are well supported by factual evidence ○Have rarely been agreed upon by anthropologists ○Were expressed in the early stages of theater’s development 4. According to paragraph 1, why did some societies develop and repeat ceremonial actions? ○To establish a positive connection between the members of the society ○To help society members better understand the forces controlling their food supply ○To distinguish their beliefs from those of other societies ○To increase the society’s prosperity Paragraph 2:Stories (myths) may then grow up around a ritual. Frequently the myths include representatives of those supernatural forces that the rites celebrate or hope to influence. Performers may wear costumes and masks to represent the mythical characters or supernatural forces in the rituals or in accompanying celebrations. As a people become more sophisticated, its conceptions of supernatural forces and causal relationships may change. As a result, it may abandon or modify some rites. But the myths that have grown up around the rites may continue as part of the group’s oral tradition and may even come to be acted out under conditions divorced from these rites. When this 99 Mail@liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在在 occurs, the first step has been taken toward theater as an autonomous activity, and thereafter entertainment and aesthetic values may gradually replace the former mystical and socially efficacious concerns. 5. The word “this” in the passage refers to ○The acting out of rites ○The divorce of ritual perform...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.

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