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Unformatted text preview: d thereby increasing the speed of the engine and cutting its fuel consumption.
6. According to paragraph 2, Watt's steam engine differed from earlier steam engines, in each of the following ways, except:
○ It used steam to move a piston in a cylinder. ○ It worked with greater speed. ○ It was more efficient in its use of fuel. ○ It could be used in many different ways.
Paragraph 3: Watt's steam engine soon showed what it could do. It liberated industry from dependence on running water 在 The engine eliminated water in the mines by driving efficient pumps, which made possible deeper and deeper mining. The ready availability of coal inspired William Murdoch during the 1790s to develop the first new form of nighttime illumination to be discovered in a millennium and a half. Coal gas rivaled smoky oil lamps and flickering candles, and early in the new century, welltodo Londoners grew accustomed to gaslit houses and even streets. Iron manufacturers which had starved for fuel while depending on charcoal also benefited from ever
increasing supplies of coal; blast furnaces with steampowered bellows turned out more iron and steel for the new machinery. Steam became the motive force of the Industrial Revolution as coal and iron ore were the raw materials 在
7. In paragraph 3 the author mentions William Murdoch’s invention of a new form of nighttime illumination in order to ○indicate one of the important developments made possible by the introduction of Watt's steam engine
○make the point that Watt's steam engine was not the only invention of importance to the Industrial Revolution
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○illustrate how important coal was as a raw material for the Industrial Revolution ○provide an example of another eighteenthcentury invention that used steam as a power source
8. The phrase grew accustomed to in the passage is closest in meaning to ○began to prefer
○ wanted to have
○ became used to
○ insisted on Paragraph 4: By 1800 more than a thousand steam engines were in use in the British Isles, and Britain retained a virtual monopoly on steam engine production until the 1830s. Steam power did not merely spin cotton and roll iron; early in the new century it also multiplied ten times over the amount of paper that a single worker could produce in a day. At the same time, operators of the first printing presses run by steam rather than by hand found it possible to produce a thousand pages in an hour rather than thirty. Steam also promised to eliminate a transportation problem not fully solved by either canal boats of turnpikes 在 Boats could carry heavy weights, but canals could not cross hilly terrain; turnpikes could cross the hills, but the roadbeds could not stand up under great weights. These problems needed still another solution, and the ingredients for it lay close at hand. In some industrial regions, heavily laden wagons, with flanged wheels, were being hauled by horses along metal rails; and the stationary steam engine was puffing in the factory and mine 在Another generation passed; befo...
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- Fall '13