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12. What is the author's purpose in presenting the information in paragraph 7? ○ To compare the influence of volcanoes and solar activity on climate variability with the influence of factors external to the global climate system ○ To indicate that there are other types of influences on climate variability in addition to those previously discussed
○ To explain how external influences on climate variability differ from internal influences
○ To argue that the rapid warming of Earth in recent decades cannot be explained
Paragraph 7 在 In addition to the internal variability of the global climate system itself, there is the added factor of external influences, such as volcanoes and solar activity. ■There is a growing body of opinion that both these physical variations have a measurable impact on the climate. ■Thus we need to be able to include these in our deliberations. ■Some current analyses conclude that volcanoes and solar activity explain quite a considerable amount of the observed variability in the period from the seventeenth to the early twentieth century’s, but that they cannot be invoked to explain the rapid warming in recent decades. ■
13. Look at the four squares [ ■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Indeed, the contribution of volcanoes and solar activity would more likely have been to actually reduce the rate of warming slightly.
Where would the sentence best fit?
14 在 Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
A number of different and complex factors influence changes in the global climate over long periods of time. ●
Answer choices ○ In the absence of instrumental records, proxy data allow scientists to infer information about past climates.
○ Scientists see a consistent pattern in the global temperature variations that have occurred in the past.
○ Computer models are used to estimate how the different causes of climate variability combine to account for the climate variability that occurs. ○ Scientists have successfully separated natural climate variation from changes related to human activities.
○ Scientists believe that activities outside the global climate system, such as volcanoes and solar activity may have significant effects on the system. ○ Scientists have concluded that human activity accounts for the rapid global warming in recent decades. 316
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14. ○1, 3, 5
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.
- Fall '13