文勇的新托福黄金&ccedil

Developing

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Unformatted text preview: ○It was based primarily on horses rather than on other animals. ○It borrowed and improved upon European ideas for mobility and warfare. ○It could be adapted to a wide variety of environments. 3. The word "profound” in the passage is closest in meaning to ○strange ○positive ○direct ○far­reaching Paragraph 2: The mobility of pastoralist societies reflects their dependence on animal­based foods. While agriculturalists rely on domesticated plants, pastoralists rely on domesticated animals. As a result, pastoraksts, like carnivores in general, occupy a higher position on the food chain. All else being equal, this means they must exploit larger areas of land than do agriculturalists to secure the same amount of food, clothing, and other necessities. So pastoralism is a more extensive lifeway than farming is. However, the larger the terrain used to support a group, the harder it is to exploit that terrain while remaining in one place. So, basic ecological principles imply a strong tendency within pastoralist lifeways toward nomadism (a mobile lifestyle). As the archaeologist Roger Cribb puts it, 'The greater the degree of pastoralism, the stronger the tendency toward nomadism.' A modern Turkic nomad interviewed by Cribb commented: "The more animals you have, the farther you have to move. 4. In paragraph 2, why does the author contrast pastoralists with agriculturalists? ○To explain why pastoralism requires more land than agriculturalism to support basic needs ○To identify some advantages that mobile societies have over immobile societies ○To demonstrate that ecological principles that apply to pastoralism do not apply to agriculturalism ○To argue that agriculturalism eventually developed out of pastoralism 404 [email protected] 在在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在在 5. According to paragraph 2, pastoralists tend to ○prefer grazing their animals on agricultural lands ○consume comparatively large amounts of food and clothing ○avoid eating plant foods ○move from place to place frequently Paragraph3: Nomadism has further consequences. It means that pastoralist societies occupy and can influence very large territories. This is particularly true of the horse pastoralism that emerged in the Inner Eurasian steppes, for this was the most mobile of all major forms of pastoralism So, it is no accident that with the appearance of pastoralist societies there appear large areas that share similar cultural, ecological, and even linguistic features. By the late fourth millennium B.C., there is already evidence of large culture zones reaching from Eastem Europe to the western borders of Mongolia. Perhaps the most striking sign of mobility is the fact that by the third millennium B.C., most pastoralists in this huge region spoke related languages ancestral to the modem Indo­European languages. The remarkable mobility and range of pastoral societies expl...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.

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