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Unformatted text preview: ater ○use saltwater for maintenance and growth 280
Mail@liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在在 ○maintain hard, protective coats even after growing roots
12. According to the passage, which of the following characteristics do spores and seeds have in common? ○They may be surrounded by several layers of covering ○They are produced by flowering plants. ○They may be spread by wind. ○They are able to grow in barren soils. Paragraph 3 Lichens helped to speed the decomposition of the hard rock surfaces, preparing a soft bed of soil that was abundantly supplied with minerals that had been carried in the molten rock from the bowels of Earth. Now, other forms of life could take hold: ferns and mosses (two of the most ancient types of land plants) that flourish even in rock crevices. ■These plants propagate by producing sporestiny fertilized cells that contain all the instructions for making a new plantbut the spores are unprotected by any outer coating and carry no supply of nutrient. ■Vast numbers of them fall on the ground beneath the mother plants. ■ Sometimes they are carried farther afield by water or by wind. ■But only those few spores that settle down in very favorable locations can start new life; the vast majority fall on barren ground. By force of sheer numbers, however, the mosses and ferns reached Hawaii, survived, and multiplied. Some species developed great size, becoming tree ferns that even now grow in the Hawaiian forests. 13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
So since the chances of survival for any individual spore are small, the plants have to produce many spores in order to propagate.
Where could the sentence best fit?
14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. After the formation of the Hawaiian Islands, much time passed before conditions were suitable for plant life. ●
Answers Choices ○Algae are classified as symbiotic because they produce energy through the process of photosynthesis.
○The first successful plants on Hawaii were probably lichens, which consist of algae and fungi living in a symbiotic relationship. ○Lichens helped create favorable conditions for the growth of sporeproducing plants such as ferns and mosses.
○Seedbearing plants evolved much later than sporeproducing plants, but both types of plants had evolved well before the formation of the Hawaiian Islands. ○Unlike spores, seeds must move to new habitats in order to have a strong chance of survival and growth.
○Seedbearing plants arrived and spread quickly in Hawaii, thanks to characteristics that increased their seeds’ ability to survive and to move t...
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- Fall '13