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Unformatted text preview: ious experiences”) and 4 sentence in paragraph8 says, “People decide whether they will act aggressively of not on the basis of factors such as their experiences with aggression and their interpretation of other people’s motives.” Choice 3, the “instinct to avoid aggression,” is not mentioned, so it is the correct answer here.
10. ○2 This is a Vocabulary question. The word being tested is distort . It is highlighted in the passage. The correct answer is choice 2, "misinterpret." To distort other people's motives is to twist them, or view them incorrectly and thereby not understand them properly. Something that is not understood properly is misinterpreted. 11. ○2 This is an Insert Text question. You can see the four black squares in paragraph 5 that represent the possible answer choices here.
The Psychodynamic Approach. Theorists adopting the psychodynamic approach hold that inner conflicts are 44
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crucial for understanding human behavior, including aggression. Sigmund Freud, for example, believed that aggressive impulses are inevitable reactions to the frustrations of daily life. Children normally desire to vent aggressive impulses on other people, including their parents, because even the most attentive parents cannot gratify all of their demands immediately. ■Yet children, also fearing their parents' punishment and the loss of parental love, come to repress most aggressive impulses. ■The Freudian perspective, in a sense, sees us as "steam engines." ■ By holding in rather than venting "steam," we set the stage for future explosions. ■ Pentup aggressive impulses demand outlets. They may be expressed toward parents in indirect ways such as destroying furniture, or they may be expressed toward strangers later in life.
The sentence provided, "According to Freud, however, impulses that have been repressed continue to exist and demand expression," is best inserted at square 2. Square 2 is correct because the sentence being inserted is a connective sentence, connecting the idea of childhood repression in the preceding sentence to the "Freudian perspective" in the sentence that follows. The use of the word however in this sentence indicates that an idea already introduced (the repression of children's aggressive impulses) is being modified. Here, the inserted sentence tells us that Freud thought that even though these impulses are repressed, they continue to exist. This serves as a connection to the next sentence and the "Freudian perspective." Inserting the sentence at square 1 would place the modification ("however, impulses . . . continue to exist") before the idea that it modifies (repression of impulses). This makes no logical sense. Inserting the sentence at square 3 would move the modifying sentence away from its logical pos...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.
- Fall '13