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Unformatted text preview: se eye movements provides evidence that the moving pattern is perceived at some level by the newborn. Similarly, changes in the infant's general level of motor activity —turning the head, blinking the eyes, crying, and so forth — have been used by researchers as visual indicators of the infant's perceptual abilities.
1. Paragraph 1 indicates that researchers use indirect methods primarily to observe the
○range of motor activity in neonates
○frequency and duration of various stimuli
○change in an infant's state following the introduction of a stimulus
○range of an infant's visual field
2. The word uniformly in the passage is closest in meaning to
3. Why does the author mention repetitive following movements of the eye ?
○To identify a response that indicates a neonate's perception of a stimulus
○To explain why a neonate is capable of responding to stimuli only through repetitive movements
○To argue that motor activity in a neonate may be random and unrelated to stimuli
○To emphasize that responses to stimuli vary in infants according to age
Paragraph 2 在 Such techniques, however, have limitations. First, the observation may be unreliable in that two or more observers may not agree that the particular response occurred, or to what degree it occurred. Second, responses are difficult to quantify. Often the rapid and diffuse movements of the infant make it difficult to get an accurate record of the number of responses. The third, and most potent, limitation is that it is not possible to be certain that the infant's response was due to the stimulus presented or to a change from no stimulus to a stimulus. The infant may be responding to aspects of the stimulus different than those identified by the investigator. Therefore, when observational assessment is used as a technique for studying infant perceptual abilities, care must be taken not to overgeneralize from the data or to rely on one or two studies as conclusive evidence of a particular 383
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perceptual ability of the infant.
4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 2 as a problem in using the technique of direct observation?
○It is impossible to be certain of the actual cause of an infant's response.
○Infants' responses, which occur quickly and diffusely, are often difficult to measure.
○Infants do not respond well to stimuli presented in an unnatural laboratory setting.
○It may be difficult for observers to agree on the presence or the degree of a response.
5. The word potent in the passage is closest in meaning to
6. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
○Researchers using observ...
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- Fall '13