Unformatted text preview: oisture and mineral salts from the rocks, passing these on in waste products that nourish algae. It is significant that the earliest living things that built communities on these islands are examples of symbiosis, a phenomenon that depends upon the close cooperation of two or more forms of life and a principle that is very important in island communities.
1. The phrase at random in the passage is closest in meaning to ○finally
○over a long period of time
○without a definite pattern
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2. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that the fungi in lichens benefit from their symbiotic relationship with algae in what way? ○The algae help the fungi meet some of their energy needs. ○The algae protect the fungi from the Sun's radiation.
○The algae provide the fungi with greater space for absorbing water.
○The fungi produce less waste in the presence of algae.
3. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. ○Some of the earliest important examples of symbiosisthe close cooperation of two or more living thingsoccur in island communities. ○Symbiosisthe close cooperation of pairs or small groups of living organismsis especially important in these island environments. ○The first organisms on these islands worked together closely in a relationship known as symbiosis, which is particularly important on islands. ○It is significant to note that organisms in the beginning stages of the development of island life cannot survive without close cooperation.
Paragraph 3: Lichens helped to speed the decomposition of the hard rock surfaces, preparing a soft bed of soil that was abundantly supplied with minerals that had been carried in the molten rock from the bowels of Earth. Now, other forms of life could take hold: ferns and mosses (two of the most ancient types of land plants) that flourish even in rock crevices. These plants propagate by producing sporestiny fertilized cells that contain all the instructions for making a new plantbut the spores are unprotected by any outer coating and carry no supply of nutrient. Vast numbers of them fall on the ground beneath the mother plants. Sometimes they are carried farther afield by water or by wind. But only those few spores that settle down in very favorable locations can start new life; the vast majority fall on barren ground. By force of sheer numbers, however, the mosses and ferns reached Hawaii, survived, and multiplied. Some species developed great size, becoming tree ferns that even now grow in the Hawaiian forests. 4. The word abundantly in the passage is closest in meaning to ○occasionally
5. The word propagate in the passage is closest in meaning to ○multiply ○emerge ○live ○evolve
6. According to paragraph 3, what was the relationship between lichens and ferns in the develo...
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- Fall '13