文勇的新托福黄金&ccedil

To sound in film

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Unformatted text preview: ..................................................................................................396 Pastoralism in Ancient Inner Eurasia.................................................................................. 403 A Warm-Blooded Turtle.........................................................................................................409 Mass Extinctions....................................................................................................................416 Glacier Formation.................................................................................................................. 423 本本本本............................................................................................................................................431 6 Mail@liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在在 7 Mail@liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在在 APPLIED ARTS AND FINE ARTS Although we now tend to refer to the various crafts according to the materials used to construct them­clay, glass, wood, fiber, and metal­it was once common to think of crafts in terms of function, which led to their being known as the "applied arts." Approaching crafts from the point of view of function, we can divide them into simple categories: containers, shelters and supports. There is no way around the fact that containers, shelters, and supports must be functional. The applied arts are thus bound by the laws of physics, which pertain to both the materials used in their making and the substances and things to be contained, supported, and sheltered. These laws are universal in their application, regardless of cultural beliefs, geography, or climate. If a pot has no bottom or has large openings in its sides, it could hardly be considered a container in any traditional sense. Since the laws of physics, not some arbitrary decision, have determined the general form of applied­art objects, they follow basic patterns, so much so that functional forms can vary only within certain limits. Buildings without roofs, for example, are unusual because they depart from the norm. However, not all functional objects are exactly alike; that is why we recognize a Shang Dynasty vase as being different from an Inca vase. What varies is not the basic form but the incidental details that do not obstruct the object's primary function. Sensitivity to physical laws is thus an important consideration for the maker of applied­art objects. It is often taken for granted that this is also true for the maker of fine­art objects. This assumption misses a significant difference between the two disciplines. Fine­art objects are not constrained by the laws of physics in the same way that applied­art objects are. Because their primary purpose is not functional, they are only limited in terms of the materials used...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.

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