文勇的新托福黄金&ccedil

Tsaccordingtothematerialsusedtoconstruct

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Unformatted text preview: presses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. ○Functional applied­art objects cannot vary much from the basic patterns determined by the laws of physics. ○The function of applied­art objects is determined by basic patterns in the laws of physics. ○Since functional applied­art objects vary only within certain limits, arbitrary decisions cannot have determined their general form. ○The general form of applied­art objects is limited by some arbitrary decision that is not determined by the laws of physics. Paragraph 2: Sensitivity to physical laws is thus an important consideration for the maker of applied­art objects. It is often taken for granted that this is also true for the maker of fine­art objects. This assumption misses a significant difference between the two disciplines. Fine­art objects are not constrained by the laws of physics in the same way that applied­art objects are. Because their primary purpose is not functional, they are only limited in terms of the materials used to make them. Sculptures must, for example, be stable, which requires an understanding of the properties of mass, weight distribution, and stress. Paintings must have rigid stretchers so that the canvas will be taut, and the paint must not deteriorate, crack, or discolor. These are problems that must be overcome by the artist because they tend to intrude upon his or her conception of the work. For example, in the early Italian Renaissance, bronze statues of horses with a raised foreleg usually had a cannonball under that hoof. This was done because the cannonball was needed to support the weight of the leg. In other words, the demands of the laws of physics, not the sculptor's aesthetic intentions, placed the ball there. That this device was a necessary structural compromise is clear from the fact that the cannonball quickly disappeared when sculptors learned how to strengthen the internal structure of a statue with iron braces (iron being much stronger than bronze). 5. According to paragraph 2, sculptors in the Italian Renaissance stopped using cannonballs in bronze statues of horses because ○They began using a material that made the statues weigh less ○They found a way to strengthen the statues internally ○The aesthetic tastes of the public had changed over time ○The cannonballs added too much weight to the statues 6. Why does the author discuss the bronze statues of horses created by artists in the early Italian Renaissance? ○To provide an example of a problem related to the laws of physics that a fine artist must overcome ○To argue that fine artists are unconcerned with the laws of physics ○To contrast the relative sophistication of modern artists in solving problems related to the laws of physics 9 [email protected] 在在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.

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