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oxidiation you have a reduced. - loss of CO2 - the product generated - Acetly CoA
- imporatnt becuase thisoester bond (high erngy) and we capture electons as
NADH- this reaction occurs n matrix of mitchondira - NADH is where it needs to
be to transfer to electron transport chain. 4/6/13 MCB 2000 Lecture 21 Two enzyme regualted by enrgy charge (PFK1 and pryuvate kinase) - Pryuvate Enzyme Complex - also regulated by energy charge - when ATP
levels high - inhibit PDC. enzyme regulating allosterically and hormonally. - in addition to ATP - feeback inhibited by both of products. liver wll being
to oxiize fatty acid for enery will not use glucose will need to make glucose. will have high NADH and high acetyl CoA.
from fatty acid
oxidiation.n to take
pryvuate back to
gluose. Regulation of PDC: Allosteric PDC less active PDC more active Low enrgy charge PDC more active.
need to sytnthesize
more ATP and
c omplex - enter
TCA cycle genreate more ATP
r egulation feedback
inhibted by product.
product is not
active with high
enery charge more active when
y ou need to
s ynthesize ATP.
and it will be
s ubstrate (NAD+
and pryuvate). 4/6/13 MCB 2000 Lecture 21 Fasted state: low gluocagon ratio - glucagon singalling perdominates - glucagaon signalling activates a specﬁ ci kinase. enzyme that regualtes a
c omplex - polypetide chain - catalyic enzyme and regualtor enzyme - glucagon signalling will trigger the activation of pryuvate kinase. that kinase
will also be activated by NAD and acetyl CoA - same molesulces that inhibit PDC - kinase becomes activated - teh phsorphoalyation that the
enzyme remains inactive. - small molecuels like acteyl CoA - conventration can ﬂ uate. - need a signal to remove phsophate. Regulation of PDC: Hormonal & Allosteric I/G Pyruvate
ADP inhibit NADH activate Acetyl CoA I/G I/G
[Calcium] 4/6/13 I/G Pryuvate will remain inactive is phosphylated state until level of insulin and glucaon someting. insulin
s ingalling will activate a phosphate and now have an active complex. pryuvate kinase - phosophate
low in liver - activated. less actie when insulin glucagon ratio is LOW. pryuvate kinase when insulin
glucagon ratio high - fed state - dephosphoylatd and resumes normall activaity. - regulated
allosterically and hormonally. major organ that responses clearly - liver. muscle doesn't response to
glucagon - as long as it wants - wont be inhibted. as long as glucose is avilable. MCB 2000 Lecture 21...
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