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Lecture 1 - SOCIOLOGY 103 SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS Winter 2013...

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SOCIOLOGY 103 SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS Winter 2013 Lorne Tepperman [email protected] 1
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The course topic: Social Institutions Institution : ! A relatively stable, shared pattern of behaviour based on relatively stable values ! Meets people ± s most important needs (e.g., for order, support, and meaning)
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No institutions exist without social interaction ! Social institutions are stable patterns of behaviour created and maintained through social interaction ! Interaction: a socially recognized pattern of inter-related acts " E.g., conversations, dating rituals 9
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10 Social institutions are social structures ! Sociology is the study of social structures ! All social structures have three things in common: " They control us " They change us " They both resist and produce social change
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11 Different structures are based on different principles of organization ! Compare the underlying principles of families versus governments versus businesses " E.g., expressive versus instrumental orientation " E.g., internal versus external focus
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Or, compare the organization of markets, clans, and hierarchies (e.g., armies) ! Market-oriented social organization is much more likely than other types of organization to value “getting the job done” – i.e., morally neutral ! A market is not protective, orderly, or benevolent
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Can’t run all institutions by the same rules: Jacobs, Systems of Survival (1992) Moral Precepts - Guardian Syndrome* ! Shun trading ! Exert prowess ! Be obedient and disciplined ! Adhere to tradition ! Respect hierarchy ! Be loyal ! Take vengeance ! Deceive for the sake of the task ! Make rich use of leisure ! Be ostentatious ! Dispense largesse ! Be exclusive ! Show fortitude ! Be fatalistic ! Treasure honor * Armies, warriors, and governments Moral Precepts – Commerce Syndrome* ! Shun force ! Compete ! Be efficient ! Be open to novelty ! Use initiative and enterprise ! Come to voluntary agreements ! Respect contracts ! Dissent for the sake of the task ! Be industrious ! Be thrifty ! Invest for productive purposes ! Collaborate easily with strangers ! Promote comfort and convenience ! Be optimistic ! Be honest * Businesses, industries, and markets 13
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What changes social structures? Drivers of change towards modernity ! In the course, we will also discuss three “drivers of change”: ! Durkheim – specialization ! Marx – commodification ! Weber - rationalization 14 Drivers of Change Differentiation Schools & Work Church & Media Family & Peers Commodi=ication Mass Production Market places & Advertisements Rationalization Reliance on reason, science and law Rejection of religion & tradition
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15 Sociology’s Emergence ! About 200 years ago ! New social problems arose from " industrialization " urbanization " political revolutions ! Also important: " The Enlightenment " The rise of science " New questioning of religious belief and tradition
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16 Two revolutions are key Two social revolutions particularly influenced the growth of sociology " Industrial Revolution " French Revolution
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17 Three Founders of Sociology " Karl Marx " Emile Durkheim " Max Weber
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18 Noting and explaining differences !
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