And job mobility as porter noted ethnic enclaves

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Unformatted text preview: = Charter groups” "  Mosaic = unassimilated cultural groups seeking the same rewards 38 被包圍的領土 Ethnic enclaves: due to limits on education and job mobility !  !  !  As Porter noted, ethnic enclaves are very evident in Canada – for example, the GTA - Great Toronto Area A strong sign that Canada is a “vertical mosaic” Reflects differential access to society’s rewards and opportunities 39 2. Conflict (or critical) theory: A second sociological approach - the role of power !  Conflict theory focuses mainly on the struggle for power among groups !  Main figures in this approach include Marx and Weber 40 - division between "have's" and "have-nots" The contribution of Marx (and Engels) !  !  Origins in work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels – e.g., Communist Manifesto In every society, there is a division between have s and havenots "  i.e., rich and poor, powerful and powerless "  competing for the limited resources 41 - Bourgeoisie and Proletariat Results in class conflict !  !  In industrial capitalist society, 2 main classes emerge: "  Bourgeoisie (capitalist class) "  Proletariat (working class) The history of the world will be the history of this class struggle 42 - inequality = socially structured - Mexico (economic inequality) Where is inequality the greatest? !  !  Economic inequality, as measured by the Gini index, is much higher in (say) (lessdeveloped) Mexico than in it is in (moredeveloped) Austria These variations show that the amount of inequality is socially structured, not innate and inevitable - non-economic conflict - intergroup conflict - status groups Max Weber s approach Expanded Marx s argument to include non-economic conflict "  Every society experiences intergroup conflict, even when classes are unorganized or invisible "  Status groups are as important as classes in amassing power "  44 - legitimate power Power and Authority !  !  Power is the ability to get your own way, or force another person to do what you want People use a variety of techniques to get their way. E.g., "  Force and threat "  Ideology and religion "  Media manipulation "  Election and legislation 45 - traditional, rational-legal, charismatic Legitimate authority !  !  Authority is what we might call legitimate power "  power that is exercised in what seems to be a justifiable way Weber identified 3 types of authority "  traditional "  rational-legal "  charismatic 46 3. Symbolic Interactionism !  !  !  !  Focuses on small groups and interpersonal interactions Society is a product of face-to-face interaction between people, using symbols Society and its social relationships are always changing and always being reconstructed by living people Can’t assume conflict or cohesion - the role of symbol 47 Three basic principles of symbolic interactionism (SI) !  Herbert B...
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