Or doing 23 household chores background facts about

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Unformatted text preview: (47%) of all injuries Over half (55%) of seniors’ injuries occurred while walking or doing 23 household chores Background facts about traumatic brain injury victims in a current study !  !  !  !  Nearly two-thirds of our fall victims are male - 2/3 victims = males Three-quarters have either witnessed, experienced, or exhibited violent behavior in their lives 40% have had a traumatic childhood experience Nearly two-thirds of our fall injuries can be at least partially explained by one or more of the following three factors: 1.  pre-existing medical conditions (esp. for elderly) 2.  behavioral styles that increase risk of injury, such as recklessness and inattentiveness 3.  external stressors (e.g., lack of sleep or marital conflict) which increase inattentiveness 24 Recurring themes in our study (and in the research literature) !  !  !  Physical abuse or violence in childhood "  Many victims had head injuries in their childhood "  They occurred mostly in sports-related concussions or in fights Perceived normalcy of injuries !  Especially in males, experiencing or witnessing violence early in life accentuates the "perceived normalcy" effect Males are much more likely than females to put themselves in dangerous or risky situations "  This is part of our cultural view of masculinity "  Therefore, the "perceived normalcy" effect becomes much more dangerous/important for males 25 Risk-taking behaviours are mainly learned (social) behaviours [Leaving aside poor physical health], risks are increased by !  The cultural ideal of risktaking in sports !  A history of reckless or impulsive risk-taking "  Being constantly in a hurry, ignoring surroundings "  A history of past injury, including abuse "  Complacency about physical injury "  The frequent use of drugs or alcohol 26 There is no known personality trait we can call “accident-proneness” - no accident-proneness - behaviour = cultural and social trait !  !  Some people have many accidents and many people have none "  however, no “accidentproneness” personality trait has been found Risky behaviour is mainly a cultural and social trait "  E.g., our society favors risk-taking in economic life, in sex, and in recreation "  E.g., our society encourages men to be tough and take risks 27 Sociological theories differ from psychological theories !  Sociological theories focus on social and cultural factors, not faulty individuals !  They are more likely to suggest ways to change society and prevent problems - sociological theories = social and cultural factors 28 Three main approaches to sociological thinking 1.  2.  3.  (Structural) Functionalism - Durkheim The role of cohesion Conflict (or critical) theory - Marx, Weber The role of power Symbolic interactionism The role of symbols 29 1. Functionalism: Durkheim and Suicide (1897) !  !  !  Durkheim helped establi...
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