Postsecondary education attained by women aged 25 44

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Unformatted text preview: d by women aged 25-44 was twice as high as that of women aged 65+ !  This contributed to the gender equalization of Canadian society 9 On the other hand, Inuit people continued to lag behind - 1/3 to have certificate, diploma, degree - the persistence of social inequality !  Compared to non- Aboriginal Canadians, Inuit people 15 years and over are onethird as likely to have a certificate, diploma, or degree !  This contributed to the persistence of social inequality - upward social and economic mobility Why Educational Expansion? !  A century ago, schools only provided basic skills and knowledge, discipline, and social training for work "  !  !  Young people worked after high school and earned enough to support a family Today, people recognize the value of formal education for upward social and economic mobility More education = more secure employment and higher salary - e.g., doctor 11 More education = more secure employment !  Since (at least) 1992, the unemployment rates of people with a college degree have remained lower than for anyone else 12 More education = A higher weekly paycheck - gender gap in earning - women still pay less than men - men with university degree = highest earning !  Among workers age 25 and older, average weekly earnings are highest for men with a bachelor’s degree or more !  Men with a university degree have the highest earnings 13 Other factors affecting educational expansion !  The "  baby boom (roughly, 1946-1966) Parents demanded more opportunities for their children !  The need for public expenditure on research and development "  - increase in demand The economy demanded more research scientists, more patents and copyrights !  Expansion was particularly marked in the sciences and technology - sciences and technology = porosity of a country "  Western governments in a space race with USSR demanded more mathematical and scientific literacy 14 One institutional response: The rise of research universities !  !  Top North American universities aim to train researchers and produce research findings Undergraduate teaching is a (minor) aspect of this process "  !  Student satisfaction and student employment are minor concerns This is reflected in the way University of Toronto measures its success, in its own eyes "  Will look at an annual report shortly (2011 is on Blackboard) 15 - single national system of higher training The “Academic Revolution” (1968) by Christopher Jencks and David Riesman As the U.S. society bureaucratized, the educational system was transformed from cohesive, small and localized units into a single national system of higher training !  Graduate schools have risen to dominance with narrowly specialized curricula, heavy research agenda, and all-PhD faculty !  Working like a funnel, the top graduate schools receive the best graduates of the best undergraduate colleges - e.g., earning a PHD is the ticket to work in the univ...
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