Every culture jokes and humor let us discuss things

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Unformatted text preview: ally accepted means of rule-breaking (like illness and drunkenness) Since cultures vary in what people fear and hate, they joke about different things, or about the same things in different ways Here s a North American battle of sexes joke (see cartoon) 34 Russian joke !  !  Many jokes about newly rich Russians – poorly educated businessmen and gangsters – overweight, short haircut, gold chains, loud clothes, driving a Mercedes Look at my new tie, says one newly rich Russian to his colleague. I bought it for $500 in the store over there. You were conned, says the other. You could have paid twice as much for the same one just across the street 35 German jokes about other nationalities and regions !  !  German jokes portray Scotsmen as miserly, Swiss as slow, French as sophisticated lovers, Poles as thieves, Dutch as marijuana smokers or slow drivers People in East Frisia (NW Germany) are portrayed as stupid or naïve "  "  Q: What would you do in the case of the Great Flood? A: Go to East Frisia, because there everything happens fifty 3 years later Cultural globalization versus nationalism Three processes suggest the coming of a global culture: 1.  2.  3.  Scientific and technological innovation Polycentric cultures and polities 多中心的 Homogenized human ambitions 37 - global culture = complex culture Growing cultural complexity This global culture is a complex culture, with !  Diverse elements !  Interactions between elements (connectedness) !  Interdependence between elements (division of labor) !  Adaptability, selforganization, emergent features 38 System-changing cultural processes Certain social and cultural institutions are fundamentally world-changing – "  i.e., change the way all cultures operate These institutions include…………. 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  Free markets Democratic elections The rule of law Scientific inquiry Technological innovation 7 Consider the system-changing role of science in the modern world In the 21st century……… !  Scientific research is the product of international communities: "  Teams of scientists make discoveries "  Networks of scientists share their findings "  Scientific communities discuss and validate the findings !  Accepted scientific knowledge rests on the peer review process 40 Merton s model of the culture (or norms) of (pure) science - CUDO !  !  !  !  Communalism The results of science are public and free for anyone to use Universalism The evaluation of scientific claims is based on universal criteria not specific to persons in question Disinterestedness The scientific knowledge is pursued and presented without seeking personal interest or position Organized Skepticism Active and critical evaluation of claims; postponement of judgment until sufficient reasons for or against a claim have been presented 41 The norms of commercial science: different but still international - PLACE !  Proprietary Exclusive ownership of knowledge, usually by a company !  Local Knowledge is primarily created to solve local, practical problems !  Authoritarian Research is hierarchically managed; an industrial researcher works under directions of a boss and not as a free individual !  Commissioned Research is based on external commissions aiming at practical utility, and not on the internal development of a research area !  Expert Researcher is a paid problem solver 10 The culture that will survive in a connected world must…. !  !  !  !  Be friendly to diverse elements Encourage interactions between elements (connectedness) Support cooperation and interdependence between elements Praise adaptability, new ideas, emergent phenomena 43 A century ago, Durkheim called this kind of culture organic solidarity !  !  !  !  Based on common interests, not common backgrounds Tends to play down moral and religious disagreements Organized around social relations of work and lifestyle Maintains respect for differences of belief 44...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course SOC 103H1 taught by Professor L.tepperman during the Fall '13 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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