By parliament in republics like us head of state

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Unformatted text preview: meet and discuss policies constitutional monarchy: head of state's position (Queen) is inherited and controlled by Parliament In republics like US, head of state (President) is elected and replaced periodically 34 - Canada: "first pas the post" method (most votes win) - proportional representation Ways of voting ! ! Methods of voting vary between democracies " Canada uses "first past the post" method " candidate with most number of votes in riding is the winner A popular alternative is proportional representation: " Office-holders taken from party list, in direct proportion to number of votes the party received in the election 35 39.6% votes for conservative party 36 166 seats for conservative party 37 - NDP - won 10-20% of federal vote - won 30% in last election Mainstream and minority parties !  !  Only Liberal and Conservative parties have ever held federal gov’t "  Never NDP NDP began as Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) "  sot, farm, co-operative and labour group "  first sot gov’t in North America "  has won 10-20% of federal vote since 1960s "  Won 30% of the vote in last election "  Now, the official opposition 38 Many groups are unrepresented !  !  The Canadian voting system leaves many unrepresented "  majority vote not needed for election: only plurality 多元化 "  different size of ridings means some votes count more (e.g., rural vs urban) In recent elections, no party got 40% of vote "  has resulted in minority government 39 Voter turnout ! ! Voter turnout has steadily declined over years to about 60% young people less likely to vote " ! more likely to participate in other activities those with higher education, born in Canada or living in Quebec are most politically active 40 - C. Wright Mill: ruling elite theory - Porter: all top elites are important - Clement: corporate elites hold decisive power (Non-democratic) Elites in Democracies !  !  C. Wright Mill's "ruling elite theory": in liberal democracies, a small privileged group controls society "  elites share similar interests and views, serve on same boards of largest companies, and create networks to secure their presence "  most powerful are corporate elite: promote interests of capitalist class "  state policy ultimately biased toward ruling class Canadian sociologists, John Porter and Wallace Clement agree 41 How related to Corporate Elite (e.g., Bay St bankers and stockbrokers)? !  !  There is Canadian elite at top of corporations, linked through common networks and ideas about power "  Porter, like Weber, believes all top elites (from different domains) are important "  Clement, like Marx, believes corporate elites hold decisive power All believe the state is the centre of political system, and politics tightly connected to economic interests 42 - resist short term demands from ruling elites The (partly) autonomous state !  !  The state usually tries to resist short-term demands from ruling elites (e.g., to reduce elite taxes) to fulfil longer term goals (e.g., to educate labour force) Neo-Marxists view state as partly autonomous -- not always responding to immediate capitalist elite demands "  accepts there are other influences in democratic states (e.g., Supreme Court, constitution) 43 The development of citizenship rights ! ! ! In England, legal rights developed over centuries " By 18th C, fair and predictable treatment was common in law courts Political citizenship developed in 19th Century " but women in Canada did not get right to vote until 1919 Social citizenship developed around Great Depression in Britain, Canada and US " social safety nets like welfare, health insurance, old age pensions, etc. 44 - full citizenship connect to class structure What is full citizenship ? !  !  “Full citizenship” is connected to class structure "  Rich people in every society have full citizenship "  Poor people only have it in most advanced societies (e.g. Scandinavia) In past decade, there has been shift away from economic equality "  focus is on women, minorities, disabled, elderly "  also growing concern with environment 45...
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