Lecture 9

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Unformatted text preview: wth of sci and tech Without written rules and fair, predictable application, there is little chance for !  Rule of law and justice !  Predictable economic life "  "  !  !  economic growth investment Predictable social life (e.g., in families, schools, workplaces) Systematic growth of 25 science and technology - fundamental connections between the rise of science This is largely why some states succeed and other states fail !  !  Features that distinguish the top 10 "failed" states from "sustainable" states "  include demographic pressures, refugees, civil war Also important: "  corruption, low confidence in government, inability to control economy, and no rule of law 26 - most sustainable state: Norway - most failed state: Somalia By this standard, the winner is… !  !  !  World’s “Most Sustainable State“: Norway The “Most Failed State“: Somalia Question of interest: "  what combination of social, historical, political, economic, and cultural factors produce success? 27 Not all rational-legal states are just or sustainable 3 types of rational-legal state: ! Authoritarian states: use force to ensure - military compliance - church " forbid public opposition, leader is often dictator " often state cooperates with military, church or multinational corporations ! Totalitarian states: - control all more extreme, stable social institution versions of authoritarian states " intervenes in both public and private life: complete loyalty and 28 !  An authoritarian state controls people mainly through the military and church "  E.g., many Latin American dictatorships !  The threat of force plus the promise of salvation is a potent combination 29 !  A totalitarian state controls all social institutions, including schools and families !  No such thing as an independent “civil society” exists in these countries 30 Resolving the past, stabilizing the present !  !  In South and Central America, there have been decades of hidden genocides, murders and kidnappings In many of these societies, police, military and other large institutions terrorize local people "  daily life is full of neverending instability "  E.g., labour unionists in Mexico, Colombia 聯合主義者 31 By contrast, a liberal-democratic state reflects the goals and values of most people, through voting ! The element of choice, shaped by ideology, is much stronger here ! 32 Types of Liberal Democratic State (most sustainable) Liberal-Democratic states: governed by citizens !  oldest form is direct democracy: in Athens, all citizens discussed and voted on issues !  However, majority of Athenians were noncitizens (slaves, women, children) "  impossible in Canada, where there are 24 million eligible voters 33 The Canadian State: a representative, constitutional monarchy !  !  !  representative democracy: people express views by electing representatives, who...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course SOC 103H1 taught by Professor L.tepperman during the Fall '13 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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