Best division of labour splitting up the work into

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Unformatted text preview: t;  Problems do not solve themselves "  Cooperation is mobilized best with direction The best organization involves the best division of labour "  Splitting up the work into manageable parts "  Putting the right people in the right roles "  Rewarding good performance 22 Social Networks !  !  !  !  The social network is another social structure of interest to sociologists Imagine 20 people connected, either directly or indirectly, to one another Direct connections: links of kinship, friendship, and acquaintance among all 20 people Within this set of 20 people, there can be 190 different paired connections "  mathematically expressed as [20(19)]/2 = 190] 23 The value of weak ties !  Information, social support, and other valuable resources flow through weakly tied networks "  !  - many direct links (vast outreach) i.e., where most connections are indirect Mark Granovetter (1974) argues that weakly tied networks may be even more useful than strongly tied networks, based on many direct links "  weakly tied networks have a vast outreach "  connect large numbers of people at a few removes 24 - emotional intensity Strong ties versus weak ties !  !  strong ties have the merit of emotional intensity "  Therefore, strong ties are needed when important favours are needed However, weak ties have the merit of vast outreach "  Good when varied information is needed 25 - weak ties (70%) and strong ties (76%) are nearly equal in providing career advice Weak ties over-estimated? !  According to recent research, weak ties and strong ties are nearly equal in providing career advice "  Contrary to what Granovetter found in 1974 !  In other respects, strong ties are superior 26 How closely are we all connected to one another? !  !  - Stanley Milgram - six degrees of separations In 1967, psychologist Stanley Milgram sent information packets to randomly selected individuals in Omaha or Wichita "  They included basic information about a target person in Boston "  If the starting person did not personally know the target, he/she was to send the packet to a friend or relative who was more likely to know the target He/she was then directed to sign his name on the roster and forward the packet to that person "  Also mailed a postcard to the researchers so that they could track the chain's progress toward the 27 target Milgram’s famous finding: 6 degrees of separation !  !  !  Often people refused to pass the letter forward, and thus the chain never reached its destination. "  However, many of the letters eventually did reach the target contact For completed chains, the average path length was around 5.5 or 6 So, the researchers concluded that people in the United States are separated by about six people (on average) = 6 degrees of separation 28 - bid world is set of connected "small worlds" Take-home message !  !  !  The six-degree...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course SOC 103H1 taught by Professor L.tepperman during the Fall '13 term at University of Toronto.

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