System of rules 4 a reliance on written documents 5

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Unformatted text preview: tions 36 Weber s ideal-type bureaucracy: the most-developed formal organization Max Weber identified seven essential characteristics of bureaucracy: 1.  a division of labour 2.  a hierarchy of positions 3.  a formal system of rules 4.  a reliance on written documents 5.  a separation of the person from the office 6.  hiring and promotion based on technical merit 7.  the protection of careers 37 Job satisfaction is not guaranteed !  Max Weber’s theory of bureaucracy made specific reference to many features of organization, but not to job satisfaction !  Job satisfaction remains a problem in large organizations "  Bureaucracy may hinder job satisfaction 38 Formal organizations are completely scripted social forms !  !  !  Official rules and impersonality separate personal matters from business matters "  serve to promote efficiency Written rules allow an organization to deal with problems uniformly; each time they arise, the rules "  simplify the situation with objective, neutral, and predictable solutions Rules also dictate how people should communicate 39 - produce formality, compliance, and discipline Formal organizations => formality !  The detailed (topdown) command associated with bureaucracy is intended to produce formality, compliance, and discipline !  In-the-field (mission) operation is usually quite different 40 Problems with Bureaucratic Organization - structure is only fantasy - office is important not the individuals - focus on efficiency not morality Sheer size of bureaucracies introduces irrationalities: !  No one person knows all the rules !  Different offices may act independently of each other – coordination issues !  Rule by offices undermines personal responsibility for decisions the organization takes "  no member of the bureaucracy is obliged to take responsibility for organizational decisions 41 The danger of bureaucracy: it works well – sometimes, too well - promoting human progress !  !  Bureaucracy has an enormous potential for promoting human progress through "  economic development "  scientific discovery "  high-quality mass education "  the delivery of humane social services to the needy Also has enormous potential for enslavement, 奴役 exploitation, and cruelty 42 Classic Study: Erving Goffman’s Asylums !  !  !  Formal title: Asylums: Essays in the Social Situations of Mental Patients and Other Inmates (1961) Asked: How do organizations committed to controlling and changing us affect our identities? Goffman examined mental institutions from the perspective of the patient 43 Goffman defined “total institutions” !  !  Total institutions (TI) all follow similar organizational principles "  Exert total control over their inmates "  Authorities watch the inmates 24/7 TI include mental hospitals, prisons, barracks, residential schools, convents, etc. "  All places where people work, live and, for a time, are cut off from the wider community in a formally 44 managed existence Total institutions as ultimate bureaucracies !  - extreme examples of bureaucratic organization Total institutions are extreme examples of bureaucratic organization: they "  Are based on principles of efficiency and procedural rigidity "  Negate the value of democratic participation "  Objectify human beings "  Teach inmates how to get around the rules "  Make inmates more able to survive inside the institution than outside it 45...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course SOC 103H1 taught by Professor L.tepperman during the Fall '13 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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