Coffin.Intro to Neuropharmacology.Part1.2S.311

Undeveloped neuron may fail to develop due to disease

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Unformatted text preview: d then lose these gains like what is observed in 9/18/13 • Connections- synaptic plasticity Neurons migrate and then form synapses. • Synaptic connections between an axon and a dendrite: axodendritic • between the axon and the soma: axosomatic • or the axons of the two neurons: axoaxonic. • Communication is anterograde from the axon of the first neuron to the dendrite, soma or axon of the second neuron. 9/18/13 Dendrite • Soma Axon LOOKING INSIDE YOUR BRAIN: Someone trading on the Stock Market: hypothetical fMRI 9/18/13 Functional Synapse • • • • • • Working Synapse: Constantly responding to its environment Energy provided by mitochondria Chemical transmitters stored in vesicles Synaptic Cleft – gap, neurotransmitters Receptors are on both sides of this synaptic cleft. 9/18/13 Stahl’s Essential Pharmacology online Long term potentiation (LTP) is a long lasting enhancement between two neurons. LTP and memories are encoded by synaptic strength 9/18/13 Synapses • • • 9/18/13 Contain the mechanism to create and equip the synapse to make it fully functional and the equipment to eliminate the synapses. Age 6 is when there are the most synapses present. Over the next 5-10 years half of the connections are removed. Under or over pruning possible cause disease states. Normal Pruning Process Too much Pruning, 9/18/13 as a result, less synapses Synaptic Transmission the Foundation of Neuropsychopharmacolog 9/18/13 An Example of Normal and Over-excitation of a Neuron • 9/18/13 Excitatory toxicity Too much glutamate may cause neuronal death in Alzheimer’s 9/18/13 Glial Cells: Oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, and Astrocytes • • • • 9/18/13 Generally thought to supporting role, giving structure, scavengers (removing debris), buffer K+ ion concentration. During development, guide and direct neurons. Line the BBB Glia, specifically, astrocytes may even have a communication role with neurons (NMDA sites, GABA), hippocampus. IN moderate stimulated cells (see Nature Nov 2010, P213) Current Research Connects GlialNeuronal Interactions with Glial cells can differentiate into neurons or Plasticity • astrocytes. • The number of mature and functional synapses are controlled by glia. • They have a form of excitability based on calcium-signaling mechanisms. Big deal, new concept. • May be involved in drug addictions, pain hypersensitivity (release neuroexcitatory and proinflammatory products) and epilepsy. (papers 9/18/13 are on the G drive) Trauma, Stress, Developmental Disorders, Neurodegenerative Disorders Changes can occur in molecular pathways, synapses, neuronal subpopulations and local circuits in the specific brain regions and higher order neural networks. Nature 443, 768-773(19 October 2006 9/18/13 Summary Up to Now • • • • 9/18/13 Neurons form, differentiate, are selected, directed and form synapses. We talked about what can go wrong in neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative disorders. While most neurons are selected by birth and synapses by adolescence, new neurons and plasticity of the neurons can be altered throughout life. Using the synapse to communicate with the cell is the foundation of neuropsychopharmacology...
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