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Unformatted text preview: d then
lose these gains like
what is observed in
• Connections- synaptic
Neurons migrate and then
between an axon and a
between the axon and the
or the axons of the two
anterograde from the axon
of the first neuron to the
dendrite, soma or axon of
the second neuron.
9/18/13 Dendrite • Soma Axon LOOKING INSIDE YOUR
Someone trading on the
Stock Market: hypothetical
9/18/13 Functional Synapse
• • • • • Working Synapse:
to its environment
Energy provided by
stored in vesicles
Synaptic Cleft – gap,
Receptors are on both
sides of this synaptic
9/18/13 Stahl’s Essential Pharmacology online Long term potentiation
(LTP) is a long lasting
two neurons. LTP and
memories are encoded by
• • • 9/18/13 Contain the mechanism to create and equip
the synapse to make it fully functional and
the equipment to eliminate the synapses.
Age 6 is when there are the most synapses
present. Over the next 5-10 years half of
the connections are removed.
Under or over pruning possible cause
disease states. Normal Pruning Process Too much Pruning, 9/18/13 as a result, less
synapses Synaptic Transmission the Foundation of Neuropsychopharmacolog 9/18/13 An Example of Normal and Over-excitation
of a Neuron • 9/18/13 Excitatory toxicity Too much
9/18/13 Glial Cells: Oligodendrocytes,
Schwann cells, and Astrocytes
• 9/18/13 Generally thought to supporting role, giving
structure, scavengers (removing debris), buffer K+
During development, guide and direct neurons.
Line the BBB
Glia, specifically, astrocytes may even have a
communication role with neurons (NMDA sites,
GABA), hippocampus. IN moderate stimulated
cells (see Nature Nov 2010, P213) Current Research Connects GlialNeuronal Interactions with
Glial cells can differentiate into neurons or
Plasticity • astrocytes.
The number of mature and functional synapses are
controlled by glia.
They have a form of excitability based on
calcium-signaling mechanisms. Big deal, new
May be involved in drug addictions, pain
hypersensitivity (release neuroexcitatory and
proinflammatory products) and epilepsy. (papers
9/18/13 are on the G drive) Trauma, Stress, Developmental
Disorders Changes can occur in molecular pathways,
synapses, neuronal subpopulations and local
circuits in the specific brain regions and higher
order neural networks.
Nature 443, 768-773(19 October 2006 9/18/13 Summary Up to Now
• • • • 9/18/13 Neurons form, differentiate, are selected, directed
and form synapses.
We talked about what can go wrong in
neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative
While most neurons are selected by birth and
synapses by adolescence, new neurons and
plasticity of the neurons can be altered throughout
Using the synapse to communicate with the cell is
the foundation of neuropsychopharmacology...
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- Fall '12