conbiomurray - CONSERVATION BIOLOGY READINGS: FREEMAN, 2005...

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CONSERVATION BIOLOGY READINGS: FREEMAN, 2005 Chapter 54 Pages 1265-1277
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CONSERVATION BIOLOGY Conservation biology is a new science that has developed in response to concerns about decreasing biodiversity. It seeks to understand the effects of human activities on populations, species, communities and ecosystems. It intends to develop practical approaches to preventing declines in biodiversity and to restore species into functioning ecosystems.
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What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity is the full range of living things on earth and their surroundings and their heritage (genes). “Everything from genes to ecosystems” The millions of plants, animals, fungi and microbes that inhabit earth; the genes they contain; and the ecosystems they help build.
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Biodiversity Is Reflected In: Ecosystem (Community) Diversity as described by community composition and environmental conditions. Species Diversity as measured by species richness (number of species) and relative abundance of each species (species evenness). Genetic (Populational) Diversity as determined by morphological traits and DNA comparisons.
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ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY The diversity of life within the biosphere can be seen at global, regional and local scales: Biomes (Global) -- marine, freshwater, terrestrial; Life Zones (Regional) -- marine [littoral (shore), pelagic (open water), benthic (bottom), abyssal (dark), reef (shallow)]; Habitats (Local) -- prairie [wet, mesic, dry].
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Preserved as National Parks. Natural areas owned by the Federal Government. Preserved for scientific, educational and recreational activities. Showcases of nature including a wide spectrum of ecosystems. ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY
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NATIONAL PARKS
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NATIONAL PARKS
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NATIONAL PARKS
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GENETIC DIVERSITY The diversity of life is fundamentally genetic. A variety of genetic methods have been used to investigate diversity both within and between species. Here are a few: Morphological variation -- a good clue, but does not correlate perfectly with genetics; Chromosomal variation -- inversions, translocations and polyploidy; Soluble proteins -- blood groups, soluble enzyme polymorphism’s; DNA markers -- microsatellites, “fingerprint” loci.
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An Endangered Species: Red Wolf This canine family member was once found in the southeast. It disappeared in the wild by the late 1970s. Reintroduced into Great Smoky Mountains National Park in 1990’s.
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An Endangered Species: Red Wolf Examination of DNA demonstrated that the red wolf is a hybrid between gray wolf and coyote. Expansion of coyote range and shrinking of gray wolf range resulted in gene swamping of red wolf genes by coyote genes.
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An Endangered Species: Cheetah A species that shows a very low level of genetic variation. May have experienced a
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOS 101 taught by Professor Molumby during the Spring '08 term at Ill. Chicago.

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conbiomurray - CONSERVATION BIOLOGY READINGS: FREEMAN, 2005...

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