Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - Buffers and Indicators Henderson Hasselbalch...

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Buffers and Indicators Henderson – Hasselbalch Equation pH pK a + log [ion] / [acid] pOH pK b + log [ion] / [base]
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Indicators Usually weak acids or (sometimes) bases K a (or K b ) determines the pH at which color changes [H + ] / K a = [HIn] / [In - ]
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Titrations - Used to determine concentrations of solutions or stoichiometry of reactions - The titrant is usually a strong acid or base. The sample can be a weak or strong acid/base.
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Polyprotic Acids Polyprotic acids follow the same basic rules as monoprotic acids H 2 A H + + HA - pK a1 HA - H + + A 2- pK a2
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Lewis Acids and Bases Lewis acid - accepts an electron pair Lewis base - donates an electron pair Think: Lewis Dot Structures Lewis Base Lewis Acid Acid-base pair
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Chapter 9 Dissolution and Precipitation Equilibria
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The Solubility Product K sp = [A m+ ] n [B n- ] m Solubility-product Constant A m B n(s) <--> nA m+ (aq) + mB n- (aq) Reliable for: - Highly dilute solutions - Nearly ideal solutions (all IMFAs are similar)
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Chapter 9 - Buffers and Indicators Henderson Hasselbalch...

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