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exam 2 notes - APICOMPLEXIANS II cause malaria and...

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APICOMPLEXIANS II – cause malaria and malaria-like diseases Class: Coccidia Order: Haemosporidia Genus: Plasmodium Species: falciparum, vivax, malariae, & ovale *1 stage must be in blood of vertebrate host *Heteroxenous -merogony, gametogony: in vertebrate host -sporogony: in invertebrate host *Vector: invertebrate intermediate host- blood-sucking (haematophagous) insect *Infective stage for vertebrate host: sporozoite Terms to Know: 1) ookinete : motile zygote in vector produced in sexual reproduction (produced in mosquito) 2) hemozoin : insoluble pigment in RBCs; is end product of parasite digestion of hemoglobin (helps parasite get from one cell to another) 3) circumsprorozoite protein : protein on surface of Plasmodium sporozoite that attaches to receptor on hepatocyte (why it makes a “B-line” for the liver) 4) cryptozoite : schizont in liver 5) hypnozoite : sporozoite in liver that goes dormant instead of transforming into trophozoite & undergoing schizogony (can remain viable for years) (source of organisms in relapsing malaria) (P. vivax & P. ovale) (dormant sporozoite) 6) Schuffner’s dots ”: appear as stippling in RBC cytoplasm (actually invaginations of RBC plasma membrane) 7) “Ring Stage”: young trophozoite in blood cell (cytoplasm is visible as thin rim around central vacuole in parasite with nucleus of parasite as a reddish purple dot at edge) 8) Tertian malaria : periodicity in schizogony results in RBC rupture every 48 hours 9) Quartan malaria : periodicity results in release every 72 hours 10) Relapsing malaria : reappearance of clinical signs & parasitemia from activation of hypnozoites in liver—reinfection of RBC’s (could be long period of time between relapse) 11) *** Recrudescing malaria : flare up of active defense from very low level of infection in RBCs from inadequate clearing of parasites from bloodstream (no clinical signs) (much quicker than relapse) 12) ***Induced malaria : mechanical transmission of malaria organisms from blood of infected individual via syringes, blood transfusion, during delivery to neonate 13) *** Congenital malaria : transmission across placental barrier to fetus (very rare) (would have to penetrate out of one blood vessel and into another) *** No exoerythrocytic (hepatic) stages involved!! MALARIA 1. “bad air”-name given by greeks: vapors & mists from swamps—really mosquitoes 2. Hippocrates & Galen 3. 100,000 years old parasite according to sequenced genome 4. 4 species that infect man are not phylogenetically related 5. vector: anopheline mosquito ; only 60 species out of 300 can serve as biological vectors 6. portrait of a “serial killer”—Malaria 7. #1 killer of children & pregnant women in tropical & subtropical regions of world 8. @ top of WHO’s list of killer diseases 9. every year b/t 1 ½ - 2 ½ million die from malaria- mostly under age 5
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10. been eradicated from most temperate regions 11. has been a problem in past from most regions including arctic, as long as a suitable mosquito will be a problem SPOROGONIC CYCLE Exoerythocytic cycle (liver):
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