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Unformatted text preview: Play and Curriculum
Materials and Approaches Questions around the issue of play and curriculum What is play? Which play activities are most useful for children? What is the role of a teacher? How should the settings and materials be presented for play? Play and Curriculum Nonplay HandsOff Play Narrowly Focused Play Intervention Broadly Focused Developmental Common Elements of Play Program Froebel Types of Approaches Reggio Emilia Montessori Common Elements of Play Programs
Play Centers and Spatial Arrangement logical arrangement modified open plan design stimulus shelters Balance of Play Materials openended vs. closed complex vs. simple realistic vs. nonrealistic Common Elements of Play ProgramsCont. Divergent Activities and Creative Expression Schedule of the Day Froebel (17821852)
The creator of the Kindergarten "Gifts", songs, movement games,finger play, gardens, "occupations" Gifts 3 and 2 dimensional materials http:froebelfoundation.org Occupation crafts :sewing, cutting, weaving, and paper folding, painting, box construction, string beads Connection between math and science and his own observations of child development Refining children's natural play Types of Approaches 1. Smilansky socioDramatic play NonPlay "HandsOff" Play Narrowly Focused Play Interventions 2. Isenberg and Jalongo Creative drama 3. Roskos and Neumann Literacy Play 4. Kamii and Devries Group Games 2. High/Scope Approach 3. Vygotskian Play Models 4. Reggio Emilia Programs 1. Bank Street Approach Broadly Focused Play Interventions Nonplay Models
Behaviorist models, i.e. Distar Derived from stimuliresponses theory Assumptions Play and learning are distinct and mutually exclusive Learning is more important than play Child as a passive recipient Didactic Public School Programs Handsoff Models
Teacher is primarily an attachment figure or informal therapist. Educational goal is to promote social and mental health Adoption of Psychoanalytic theory Examples Nursery schools of the 1920's Narrowly Focused Play Interventions Smilansky sociodramatic play Isenberg and Jalongo creative drama Roskos and Neumann Literacy Play Kamii and Devries Group Games Narrowly Focused: Smilansky: sociodramatic play Designed to enhance children's cognitive abilities and social skills Four steps for Smilansky's Sociodramatic play intervention program Step1: Provide unique experiences for children to recreate in play Step2: Create a special play center with thematic props that relate to these unique experiences Step3: Observe children's play, and note play strength and deficits: Identify children who need special support in play Step4: Intervene in children's sociodramatic play Narrowly Focused: Isenberg and Jalongo: Creative drama
Emphasis on planning and social collaboration Invent six different types of drama for primary grade children Sociodramatic play, Story play, Pantomime, Puppetry, Story drama, Readers theater Narrowly Focused: Roskos and Neumann Literacy Play Pens, markers, pad of paper, stationery, envelops, books, and signs Focuses on children's literacy Literacy routines in sociodramatic play Creates an ideal context of sociodramatic play for practicing functional uses of print Literacy props Narrowly Focused: Kamii and Devries Group Games Games encourage children to acquire specific Group games contribute to cognitive and social development concepts of number, space, literacy, and decentration. Games lead children away from pure egocentricism toward more social, rulegoverned thoughts Proposed detailed guidelines for teaching interactions during group games Broadly Focused Developmental Models Bank Street Approach High/Scope Approach Vygotskian Play Models Reggio Emilia Programs Broadly Focused: Bank Street Approach Main goal is overall mental health First examples of activities like, pretend, sand & water, blocks, clay, puzzles, painting Use centers Flexible schedule Broadly Focused: High/Scope Approach
PlanDoReview (quietactivequiet) : Development of representation 4 areas dramatic, blocks, quiet, art "key experiences"/ Piagetian skills : Provide teachers with a way of being free from the use of workbooks in curriculum management Broadly Focused: Vygotskian Play Models "nonobtrusio n rule" peer interaction scaffolding in ZPD Broadly Focused: Reggio Emilia Program Goal is intellectual adaptation through representation Artistic representation Art is a particular kind of play Art is chosen medium to represent children's thinking Reggio Emilia Program (cont.) Multisymbolic Approach Presentation of concepts in multiple forms of representation : print, art, construction, drama, and music Integration of the graphic arts as tools for cognitive, linguistic, and social development Reggio Emilia Program (cont.) Teachers Atelierista A trained teacher in the visual arts Focuses on artistic development Atelier The regular teacher Plans and implements the daytoday curriculum Classroom Reggio Emilia Program (cont.) Documentation Focuses on children's experience, memories, thoughts and ongoing ideas of progress Aesthetic display throughout the classroom Makes children's learning visible Enhances children's learning Helps children take their ideas and works seriously Teacher planning and evaluation of children Parent appreciation and participation (Katz & Chard, 1996) Reggio Emilia Program (cont.) Environment The physical environment is considered the "third teacher" Teachers carefully organize spaces for small and large group projects and small intimate spaces Classrooms open to a central piazza Kitchens are open to view Wallsized window Doors to the outside in each classroom. Display of children's documentation, plants, and collections Openness means the access to the surrounding community Reggio Emilia Programs (cont.) Environment Atelier Piazza A fully equipped art studio a great variety of tools and resource materials many records of children's past projects and experiences A special staff person (an ateliersta) helps children facilitate their art activities shared center room space open to other classrooms Children's documentations and constructions are shared More about Reggio Emilia Program http://zerosei.comune.re.it/inter/index.htm http:// ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/poptopics/reggio/reglink.html Montessori (18701952) (See our text book p. 1718) Italian physician Worked with mentally retarded children Founded "Children's House" where she developed method of education Created the program based on her observations of children playing and using materials "Children teach themselves." Montessori Materials Arranged on low open shelves Children can choose individually Each material isolates one quality size, color, shape, texture selfcorrecting so child can perceive error materials interrelated Examples: pink tower, knobbed puzzle maps, colored beads, specialized rods and blocks Montessori Materials ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ALD 321 taught by Professor Reifel during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.
- Spring '08