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Unformatted text preview: fernes. c. 1625.
Oil on canvas. 184.2
141.6 cm (721 2
553 4 ). Detroit Institute
of Arts, Detroit,
Michigan. Gift of
Mr. Leslie H. Green. Helen Frankenthaler. The Bay. 1963. Acrylic on canvas.
811 2 ). Detroit Institute of Arts,
207 cm (793 16
Detroit, Michigan. Founders Society Purchase with funds
from Dr. and Mrs. Hilbert H. DeLawter. LESSON 4 How Artists Create Shapes and Forms in Space 111 FIGURE 5.18 The artist
has represented shadows and
highlights with photographic
reality. Notice how he has made
the objects seem to look solid.
The seats of the stools look
round. The reflections on the
metal ceiling indicate rounded
form. How does he use light
to create the effect of a cool,
air-conditioned interior against a
hot outdoor scene?
Ralph Goings. Diner With Red Door.
1979. Oil on canvas. 112.4
601 2 ). Courtesy of OK Harris
Works of Art, New York, New York. The arrangement of light and shadow is
called chiaroscuro (kyah-roh-skooroh). In Italian chiaro means “bright,”
and oscuro means “dark.” Chiaroscuro
was introduced by Italian artists during
the Renaissance. Today, chiaroscuro is
often called modeling or shading.
Look, for instance, at an object with
angular surfaces, such as a cube. You
will see a large jump in value from one
surface of the cube to the next. One surface may be very light in value and the
next very dark. Now look at an object
such as a baseball. The curved surfaces
of spheres and cylinders show gradual
changes in value.
The area of a curved surface that
reflects the most light is, of course, the
lightest in a drawing. Highlights are
small areas of white used to show the very
brightest spots. Starting at the highlights,
the value changes gradually from light
values of gray to dark values of gray. The
darkest values are used to show areas
that receive the least light. An area that
is turned completely away from a light
source is almost black. Look at Figure
5.18 to see the different ways an artist
has created the illusion of form.
112 CHAPTER 5 Shape, Form, and Space Using
Applying Your Skills. Set up an
arrangement of geometric forms. Use
boxes, books, balls, and cylindrical containers. Study the way light reflects off the
surfaces of the objects. Draw the
arrangement. Give the shapes in your
drawing the illusion of three dimensions
by using the medium and shading technique of your choice. Use values that
range from black to white, and employ
many value steps in between.
Computer Option. To perfect your
shading technique, experiment with the
Pencil, Brush, Line, Gradient, and Airbrush
tools. Several programs include a Smudge
or Blending tool, which softens edges.
The Pencil, Line, and small Brush tools
can be used with shading techniques you
use when working with pen and ink. To
explore these options, draw a small
square shape. Select, copy, and paste
seven more copies of the square in a row
across the screen. Then choose from a
variety of tools, textures, and settings to
create different valu...
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This document was uploaded on 09/23/2013.
- Fall '13