Chap05shape and form

Acrylic paint onto a canvas that is placed flat on

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Unformatted text preview: fernes. c. 1625. Oil on canvas. 184.2 141.6 cm (721 2 553 4 ). Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, Michigan. Gift of Mr. Leslie H. Green. Helen Frankenthaler. The Bay. 1963. Acrylic on canvas. 811 2 ). Detroit Institute of Arts, 201.1 207 cm (793 16 Detroit, Michigan. Founders Society Purchase with funds from Dr. and Mrs. Hilbert H. DeLawter. LESSON 4 How Artists Create Shapes and Forms in Space 111 FIGURE 5.18 The artist has represented shadows and highlights with photographic reality. Notice how he has made the objects seem to look solid. The seats of the stools look round. The reflections on the metal ceiling indicate rounded form. How does he use light to create the effect of a cool, air-conditioned interior against a hot outdoor scene? Ralph Goings. Diner With Red Door. 1979. Oil on canvas. 112.4 153.7 cm 601 2 ). Courtesy of OK Harris (441 4 Works of Art, New York, New York. The arrangement of light and shadow is called chiaroscuro (kyah-roh-skooroh). In Italian chiaro means “bright,” and oscuro means “dark.” Chiaroscuro was introduced by Italian artists during the Renaissance. Today, chiaroscuro is often called modeling or shading. Look, for instance, at an object with angular surfaces, such as a cube. You will see a large jump in value from one surface of the cube to the next. One surface may be very light in value and the next very dark. Now look at an object such as a baseball. The curved surfaces of spheres and cylinders show gradual changes in value. The area of a curved surface that reflects the most light is, of course, the lightest in a drawing. Highlights are small areas of white used to show the very brightest spots. Starting at the highlights, the value changes gradually from light values of gray to dark values of gray. The darkest values are used to show areas that receive the least light. An area that is turned completely away from a light source is almost black. Look at Figure 5.18 to see the different ways an artist has created the illusion of form. 112 CHAPTER 5 Shape, Form, and Space Using Shading Applying Your Skills. Set up an arrangement of geometric forms. Use boxes, books, balls, and cylindrical containers. Study the way light reflects off the surfaces of the objects. Draw the arrangement. Give the shapes in your drawing the illusion of three dimensions by using the medium and shading technique of your choice. Use values that range from black to white, and employ many value steps in between. Computer Option. To perfect your shading technique, experiment with the Pencil, Brush, Line, Gradient, and Airbrush tools. Several programs include a Smudge or Blending tool, which softens edges. The Pencil, Line, and small Brush tools can be used with shading techniques you use when working with pen and ink. To explore these options, draw a small square shape. Select, copy, and paste seven more copies of the square in a row across the screen. Then choose from a variety of tools, textures, and settings to create different valu...
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This document was uploaded on 09/23/2013.

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