Chap05shape and form

Perspective eschers works achieve their visual

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Unformatted text preview: r manipulation of positive and negative space. They skillfully switch forms into places where the viewer would logically expect space, or what appears to be the outer surface of an object reverses into an inner space. Escher also created designs using positive and negative space to transform one object to another. A flock of birds on the left side of the picture becomes a school of fish on the right side. Each time a change takes place, the negative space becomes dominant and transforms into the new object. Dutch, 1898–1972 Portrait of M. C. Escher. © 1998 Cordon Art, Baarn, Holland. All rights reserved. FIGURE 5.10 At first this print looks normal. Water is falling to turn a water wheel. However, follow the water from the base of the fall. It runs uphill! Escher has created a visual puzzle using the mathematics of perspective. M. C. Escher. Waterfall. 1961. Lithograph. © 1998 Cordon Art, Baarn, Holland. All rights reserved. LESSON 2 Space 105 Space in ThreeDimensional Art Over, under, through, behind, and around are words that describe threedimensional space. Architecture, sculpture, weaving, ceramics, and jewelry are three-dimensional art forms. They all take up real space. You can walk around, look through, look behind, peer over, and reach into threedimensional art. FPO FIGURE 5.11 The interior of this cathedral was designed so that the stained glass and the vertical columns would pull your eyes upward toward the heavens. Reims Cathedral (interior). Reims, France. Begun c. 1225. 106 CHAPTER 5 Shape, Form, and Space Architects shape space. They design structures that enclose a variety of spaces for people. They create large spaces for group activities, such as the one you see in Figure 5.11. They also create small spaces for privacy. Landscape architects and city planners are also involved in planning spaces for people to use. Negative areas in three-dimensional art are very real. Most three-dimensional works are meant to be freestanding, which means they are surrounded by negative space (Figure 5.12). The viewer must move through this negative space to see all of the different views of a threedimensional work. Relief sculpture is not intended to be freestanding. It projects out from a flat surface into negative space. You can find relief sculpture on ceramic pots and plaster ceilings. When the positive areas project slightly from the flat surface, the work is called bas relief, or low relief (Figure 5.13). When the positive areas project farther out, the work is called high relief. Most jewelry is planned as relief sculpture to decorate human surfaces. The inside of a ring or the back of a pendant is smooth. It is not meant to be seen; it simply rests on the person’s surface. Today many artists are experimenting and changing traditional art forms. Printmakers are creating relief prints. Some printmakers are molding relief designs in handmade paper. Painters are adding a third dimension to the painted surface. Some painters are cutting or teari...
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