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top seem to take if you are sitting across
the room from it? What would the
shape look like if you viewed it from the
top of a tall ladder? Do you think the
shape you see will change if you lie on
the floor directly under the table? LESSON 3 How We Perceive Shape, Form, and Space 109 FIGURE 5.15 Grandma Moses is the professional name of Anna Mary Robertson Moses. She began to paint rural scenes
from her memories in the 1970s. This painting depicts the many different aspects of making maple sugar. What point of view is
she using? What effect does this point of view create for the viewer?
Grandma Moses. Sugaring Off. 1955. 50.8 x 63.5 cm (20 x 25 ). © 1955 (renewed 1983) Grandma Moses Properties Company, New York, New York. When you looked at your hand, your
eyes stayed in the same place, but your
hand moved. When you studied the
table, it remained in one place, but you
moved. In both cases, what you saw
changed because your relationship to
the object changed. Your point of view
depends on where you are and where
the object is. Look at Figure 5.15.
Where is the artist’s point of view in
relation to the people in that picture? 110 CHAPTER 5 Shape, Form, and Space Check Your
1. What three dimensions are we able
2. Define point of view.
3. Why may people who are looking
at the same object see different
shapes and forms? LESSON 4 How Artists Create Shapes
and Forms in Space Vocabulary S chiaroscuro
perspective hapes and forms can be classified as natural or manufactured. Natural
shapes and forms are made by the forces of nature. For instance, animals,
plants, and stones are natural forms. Manufactured forms are those created
by people, whether mass-produced by the thousands in factories or made
Artists use many materials and techniques to make shapes. They concentrate on both outline and area. Some artists outline shapes in drawings and
paintings. Others may paint shapes by placing brushstrokes together without
using even a beginning outline. Some may cut shapes and print shapes and
some may pour paint to create shapes (Figure 5.16).
Like shapes, three-dimensional forms can be made in many ways. Artists
model clay forms, mold metal forms, and carve forms from wood or stone.
They use glass, plastic, bricks, and cement to create forms as well as shapes. The Illusion of Form
Artists can create the illusion of three-dimensional form on a surface that
is two-dimensional. They can give the impression of depth and solidity by
using changes in value. Figure 5.17 is an example of this illusion. FIGURE 5.17
was a Baroque
artist who used
the arrangement of
contrasting light and
dark to create a
dramatic effect in
her work. Notice
how the light seems
to be coming from
a single candle. FIGURE 5.16 Frankenthaler is an action painter
who creates shapes by pouring thinned acrylic paint
onto a canvas that is placed flat on the floor. Artemisia Gentileschi.
Judith and Maidservant
with the Head of
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- Fall '13