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To form reactant product types of electrolytes types

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Unformatted text preview: Types of Electrolytes Types – Nonelectrolytes – substances that dissolve in Nonelectrolytes water but do not ionize, do not conduct electricity electricity Sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11) Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) Antifreeze (ethylene glycol, HOCH2CH2OH) Solubility of Ionic Compounds in Water Water Ionic compounds dissolve differently in Ionic water, but there are guidelines for prediction (figure 3.10) KNOW THIS!!!! prediction If either of the ions are soluble, the If compound will at least be partially soluble compound Precipitation Reactions Precipitation What is a precipitation reaction? – Produces an insoluble product called a Produces precipitate precipitate – Reactants are generally water soluble ionic Reactants compounds compounds – If one of the cations can form an insoluble If compound with one of the anions in the solution, a precipitation reaction occurs solution, PbCrO4(s) Net Ionic Equations Net Silver nitrate and potassium chloride react Ag+(aq) + NO3-(aq) + K+(aq) +Cl-(aq) AgCl(s) + K+(aq) + NO3-(aq) Ions that are present in solution before and Ions after the reaction are called SPECTATOR IONS IONS They do not participate in the reaction Write equation, Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s) Net Ionic Equations Net There is no loss of important information There by doing this. We just know that there must be some other anion for silver to be in solution in Charge Balance – the cations and anions Charge on the left must add together to give a net charge of zero charge Acids Acids Acids produce CO2 gas when added to limestone limestone Acids react with most metals to produce Acids H2 gas Acids have a sour taste (Don’t try it) An ACID is a substance that, when An dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions H+(aq) in concentration (aq) the water (Arrhenius definition) the Bases Bases Some bases have the hydroxide ion in Some their formula. SO we can look at it and tell it is basic. it A BASE is a substance that, when BASE dissolved in water increases the concentration of hydroxide ion, OH-, iin the n concentration water (Arrhenius definition) water Bases Bases OH containg compounds are strong OH electrolytes, so they are strong bases electrolytes, NaOH(s) Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) 100% dissociated hydroxide ion Some bases do not contain an OH group – Ammonia doesn’t contain OH but produces Ammonia OH- on reacting with water OH NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) <100% ionized <100% ammonium ion These are weak bases hydroxide ion Reactions of Acid and Bases Reactions When strong acids and bases react water When and a salt are produced and HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) H2O(l) + NaCl(aq) A salt is an ionic compound whose cation salt comes from a base and anion comes from an acid an H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l) + Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Reactions of Acid and Bases Reactions Since Na+ and Cl- appear on both sides, The net ionic equation for the reaction The between any strong acid and any strong base base H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l) We...
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