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Unformatted text preview: greater close to the nucleus, so the electron is most often around the nucleus – So, the 1s orbital is spherical in shape Shell/Subshell Size and Energy Shell/Subshell Size and Energy – IMPORTANT: the size of the s orbital increases as n increases AND energies of electron shells increase with increasing n and, within a shell, subshell energies increase with increasing l (more on this in Chapter 7). p orbitals p orbitals l=1 are p orbitals and all have the same basic shape – All p orbitals have one imaginary plane that slices through the nucleus and that divides the region of electron density in half – Nodal surface – the imaginary plane which there is zero probability of finding the electron – Remember: if l=1, ml can have 3 values so they are 3 orientations possible – px, py, pz d and f orbitals d and f orbitals The value of l is equal to the number of nodal surfaces that slice through the nucleus d orbitals ­ two nodal surfaces (i.e., l = 2) – Five possible orientations f orbitals – three nodal surfaces (i.e., l = 3) – Seven possible orientations Magnetism Magnetism In 1600, Gilbert concluded the earth is a spherical magnet giving rise to a magnetic field Diamagnetic ­ substances are repelled by a magnet Paramagnetic – substances attracted to a magnet – Attraction is very small and a large magnet must be used to see the effect Magnetism and Electron Spin Magnetism and Electron Spin An electron has properties of a spinning, charged particle and paramagnetism arises from electron spins 4th quantum number – electron spin magnetic quantum number, ms It takes 4 quantum numbers to describe an electron (when including it’s spin) Magnetism Magnetism An atom with a single unpaired electron placed in a magnetic field only has two possible orientations – It must be with the field or opposed to the field – ms= +½ or ­½ – – – – Electron spin is quantized When an electron is assigned an orbital, it can take either spin H – 1 e­ aligns with the field He – 2 e­ assigned to the same orbital have opposite spin orientations Spins are paired Paramagnetism is the attraction to a magnetic field of substances which contain unpaired electrons...
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2013 for the course CHEMISTRY 111 taught by Professor Olive during the Fall '13 term at North Alabama.

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