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Ertainpointin spacewheninagivenenergystatetheregionof

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Unformatted text preview: one electron, 2 or more electrons may have the same value of n. Said to have the same electron shell Quantum Numbers Quantum Numbers L, the Angular Momentum Quantum number = 0, 1, 2, …, n­1 – Electrons in a given shell can be grouped into subshells, and will have a different l – Each l corresponds to a different type of orbital with a different shape – Value of n limits l, and value of l coded with a letter Value of l Subshell label 0 s 1 p 2 d 3 f An l=1 subshell is called a p subshell and an orbital found in that subshell is called a p orbital Quantum Numbers Quantum Numbers ml, the Magentic Quantum Number= 0, + 1,2,3, …,+l – Related to the orientation of the orbitals within a subshell – Orbitals in a given subshell differ only in their orientation in space, not in energy – Value of l, limits the integer values assigned to ml – ml can range from +l to –l with 0 included. – L = 2, ml has five values ­2,­1,0,1,2 – Number of values of ml =2l +1 specifies the number of orientations that exist for the orbitals of that subshell Using Info from Quantum Numbers Using Info from Quantum Numbers Table 6.1 Electrons in atoms are assigned orbitals which are grouped into subshells. Depending on the value of n, one or more subshells constitute an electron shell Electron subshells are labeled by first giving the value of n and then the value of l in the form of its letter code. For n=1 and l=0, label is 1s Using Info from Quantum Numbers Using Info from Quantum Numbers First Electron Shell, n=1 – n=1, l can only be zero, so ml must be zero – The electron shell closest to the nucleus can only have one subshell, and that subshell consists of a single orbital, the 1s orbital For the second shell, n=2 – n=2, l can be 0 or 1, so two subshells or two types of orbitals can occur in the second shell. One is the 2s subshell (n=2,l=0) and the other is the 2p subshell (n=2,l=1). ml can be ­1,0,1 when l=1, three orbitals exist. – All have the same shape but different ml values they differ in orientation in space – l=1, p orbitals are indicated, and three of them always occur Using Info from Quantum Numbers Using Info from Quantum Numbers For the third shell, n=3 – n=3, 3 subshells are possible because l=0,1,2. – Know that l=0,1 already, so there is a 3s and 3 3p orbitals – 3rd subshell is d, l=2, ml has 5 values ­2,­1,0,1,2, there are 5 d orbitals For the fourth shell, n=4 – s,p,d orbitals, and now have f orbital – Seven orbitals since there are seven values of ml Shapes of Atomic Orbitals Shapes of Atomic Orbitals The chemistry of an element and its compounds is determined by the electrons of the element’s atoms, especially the ones with the highest n, which are called valence electrons. The shape and orientation of the orbital are very important s orbital s orbital When l=0, the electron occupies the s orbital – So n=1 and l=0, so a 1s orbital – Photograph a 1s electron every second for a few thousand seconds ­ electron cloud pictures – Density is...
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