Unformatted text preview: nitrogen, calculate the partial pressure of each gas listed.
Partial pressure = % gas x atmospheric pressure:
PO2 of inspired air is ____________ .304
PCO2 of inspired air is ___________ 592.8
PN2 of inspired air is ____________ Note: Patm = PN2 + PO2 + PCO2 + PH2O + Pmisc = 760 mmHg (at sea level) 3. Effect of the conducting zone on inspired air
atmospheric air has high O2 and tiny CO2.
These levels change a LOT as air is inspired Functional Applications:
Effect of Altitude
Is it physically more difficult to ventilate the lungs at higher altitudes?
no. effort to create pressure gradient has not changed. What effect does high altitude have on breathing?
denver= 630 mmHg Percent of O2 21% Pp=132.3
has an effect because Pp in alveoli. has an effect on the gradient. Effect of deep water diving
How is deep water diving breathing different than breathing at high altitude?
deeper underwater you go, the higher the pressure
for each 10 meters below the surface, the Patm increases by 760 mmHg
so at 10 meters underwater Patm= 1520 mmHg Effects of depth on blood gases:
gases dissolve when pressurized . Nitrogen narcosis: nitrogen can enter the bloodstream in greater effect, can interfere in blood stream, cause effect similar to intoxication. Decompression sickness:
the bends, nitrogen is dissolving but does not have enough time to dissolve out of the body.
symptoms: severe joint pain and skin irritation. headache and dizziness. seizure, paralysis, death
all caused by nitrogen bubbles forming to rapidly outside air VI. GAS EXCHANGE 160 mmHg .30 mmHg pressure in alveolar space changes because
CO2 made, and theres always air stuck in dead space
that couldnt be removed previously. Air humidified pulmonary vein
pulmonary artery 105mmHg
100 40 mmHg numbers result of
makes CO2 40
alveolar space 40mmHg 46 alveolar capillary .30mmHg
A. Air entering lungs from outside air has PO2 of ________ and PCO2 of ________. 105mmHg
B. As air moves through the conducting zone the values change to a PO2 of ________ and a
PCO2 of ________. This change occurs for two reasons:
1. air always stuck in dead space 2. humidiﬁcation 40
C. Blood entering lungs (pulmonary artery) has a PO2 of ________ and a PCO2 of ________. These partial pressures are the result of _cellular metabolism
D. As the blood travels through the _________________ capillaries, the partial pressures in blood
change to a PO2 of ___________ and a PCO2 of ___________.
E. Blood travels back to the left side of the heart and then proceeds to the capillaries out in the
body. Blood entering the capillaries still has a PO2 of __________ and a PCO2 of __________.
F. Gas exchange occurs within the tissues where O2 diffuses into the cell and CO2 diffuses into
the blood. The blood entering a venule will have a PO2 of ________ and a PCO2 of ________.
G. Blood then heads to the right side of the heart where it will be sent back to...
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- Fall '12
- thoracic cavity