Unformatted text preview: ere are 4 basic volumes and 4 lung capacities:
i1. Tidal Volume (TV): volume of air entering or leaving lungs during one breath.
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): The max. amount that can enter the lungs beyond TV.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): The max. amount of air that can be exhaled beyond TV.
i4. Residual Volume (RV): The amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration.
i5. Vital Capacity (VC): The max. amount of air that can be exhaled after max. inspiration.
VC = IRV + TV + ERV
6. Inspiratory Capacity (IC): The amount of air that can be inhaled after exhaling the TV.
IC = TV + IRV
7. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): Amount of air in the lungs after exhalation of the TV.
FRC = ERV + RV
8. Total Lung Capacity (TLC): Total air in lungs after maximal inspirational effort.
TLC = TV + IRV + ERV + RV Other measurements:
Minute Ventilation (VE) = TV x Respiratory Rate
air moved thru the respiratory system Alveolar Minute Ventilation (VA) = ( Tidal Volume- Dead Space air that can be used for gas exchange Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1) =
similar to ejection fraction
70-80% is normal. Relative FEV1 (FEV1 %) XI. PULMONARY DISORDERS
1. Restrictive disorders
tend to be disorder where it is difficult to expand lungs.
Leads to inspiratory difficulty.
decrease vital capacity, lost ability to inhale maximum amount of hair
e.g. pulmonary fibrosis and pregnancy, in pregnancy size of thoracic cavity decreases because child occupying the space. 2. Obstructive disorders
lead to expiratory difficulty.
e.g. asthma, bronchitis and emphysema ) x Respiratory Rate XI. PULMONARY DISORDERS (cont.)
Clinical Application: ASTHMA What are some stimuli that cause asthma?
smoke, pollen, particulate matter, dust mites, exercise,
increasing resistance. Why do they result in asthma for some people and not others?
depends on your immune system response, some people respond hyperactively to these and see them as pathogens, creates an inﬂammatory response. Which part of the respiratory system is affected?
conducting zone. What is the effect of an asthma attack on airflow through the respiratory system?
harder to move air, narrowing airways by constricting bronchioles, tend to be adding mucus to the airways. air cannot be forced in and out as easily, someone with
asthma might describe it as being smothered. The control of air flow in the conducting zone is mediated by the autonomic nervous system.
The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems have contrasting effects on air flow:
Which of the following actions is sympathetic and which is parasympathetic?
_________________________ leads to bronchodilation and inhibits mucous production.
done via Beta2 adrenergic receptors parasympathetic.
_________________________ leads to bronchoconstriction and stimulates mucous production. done via muscarinic receptors Many asthma sufferers treat their chief symptom (difficult ventilation) with a medication called
Albuterol that can be inhaled when needed. Albuterol is a short-acting $2-adrenergic agonist.
creating or mimicking sympathetic response, unlock gates, relax muscle Why does a $2-adrenergic agonist make it easier to breathe in just a few moments?...
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- Fall '12
- thoracic cavity