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Physiology exam 4 respiratory

Of water molecules to attract to each other alveoli

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Unformatted text preview: ch other. alveoli and bronchioloes are lined by a thin layer of H2O. what effect could that have: could potentially collapse alveoli. no surface tension: collapse 4. Pulmonary surfactant phospholipid "detergent. secreted by what?: type 2 alveoli (support cells) when? deep inhalation yawning occurs after a lot of small breaths to provide lots of air and relieve surface tension enough surfactant, then no surface tension in alveoli DeltaV/DeltaP emphysema Normal Fibrosis Clinical Applications I. Pneumonia What is the role of the conductive zone? filters air and traps particles, specifically pathogens pathogen What happens if __________________ reach the alveoli? lungs are good environment for bacteria. good place to start to replicate. inflammation Why is _____________________ a big problem in the lungs? Fluid. we don't want water in alveoli gas exchange If _______________________ decreases, what must happen? ability to move O2 in and CO2 out has slowed down. rate of diffusion has dropped. will need to breathe more, faster and deeper breathing What mechanism is used to accomplish this? using accessory muscles, O2 demand is increasing muscle activity If _______________________ increases, what happens to O2 demand in those cells? rising How will those needs be met? going to have to breath harder. Why can this be fatal? eventually you reach point where you cannot breath fast enough and balance out O2 demand and cannot remove CO2, all comes down to diffusion issue. as water layer builds pressure up, complacency down. II. Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) is the leading cause of death in premature babies. It is characterized by severe difficulty breathing and is related to the maturation of Type II alveolar cells. Why would immature Type II alveolar cells have an adverse effect on breathing? they are not secreting enough surfactant because they are not matured all the way. They also do not store as much surfactant. How can IRDS be treated, and how long will it need to be treated? ventilator: takes effort away from breathing. Use an artificial surfactant. has to be used until type 2 alveoli have developed and lung strength has increased. Adults can suffer from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which is similar in symptoms to IRDS. What could cause ARDS? type 2 alveoli fine, but layer of water is being increased. pneumonia could cause this thicker layer of water from infection. surface tension would rise and end up in same boat as infants. smoke inhalation. firefighting one of the most dangerous jobs for ARDS. treatment: ventilator V. PARTIAL PRESSURES AND GAS EXCHANGE 1. Dalton's Law: when looking at a mixed gas the total pressure of gas will be the sum of each separate gases pressure. (partial pressures) 2. Partial Pressure = amount of pressure any single gas contributes to the total pressure of a mixed gas. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 760 mmHg. If inspired air is approximately 21% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide and 78%...
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