Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - CC Study Guide Midterm 1 Jean Jacques...

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CC Study Guide Midterm 1 Jean Jacques Rousseau – The Social Contract - Men are born free yet everywhere are in chains. - Civil society does nothing to enforce the equality and individual liberty that were promised to man when he entered that society. - The only legitimate political authority is the one that is consented to by all people for the sake of preserving their mutual well-being. - The collective grouping of all people who by their consent enter into a civil society is called the sovereign. - The sovereign is the “individual” that expresses the general will. - This general will is the collective need of all people to provide for the common good of all. - The most important function of the general will is to create the laws of the state. - The laws must therefore express the general will. - Although the laws exist due to the general will of the sovereign, some form of government is necessary to carry out the collective function of enforcing the laws. - Monarchy is the form of government that is strongest and particularly well suited in crises. - Aristocracy is the form of government that is most stable and preferred by most. - The government is sometimes liable to go against the people (sovereign). - To avoid confusion of the general will it is necessary for the people to convene and to vote on the particular issues in such a manner as to enforce the unified desires. Jean Jacques Rousseau – Discourse on Inequality - The purpose of Discourse on Inequality is to determine which sorts of inequalities are natural and unnatural (and therefore preventable). - In the state of nature, man is characterized by pity and self-preservation, without reason or concept of good and evil. - The only thing to separate man from the beasts is some sense of perfectibility. This notion of perfectibility is what allows humans to change with time. - With the development of small groupings (when man begins to move out of his state of nature), the creation language allows for reason.
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- One negative consequence of men forming groupings is their tendency to compare themselves to others – amour propre . - As society becomes more complex and amour propre develops, private property emerges. - The collective labor needed to maintain mankind is divided and this division of labor and the beginning of private property allow property owners to exploit the poor. - In short the only natural inequality among men results from differences in physical strength, for this is the only inequality that exists in the state of nature. - Modern laws and property create new and unnatural inequalities among men. David Hume – Inquiry on Morals - The subject in Inquiry is the contribution of reason and moral sense in our moral judgments. - Although both moral sense and reason play a role in our formation of moral
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Final Study Guide - CC Study Guide Midterm 1 Jean Jacques...

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