And material science the innovation lies in precise

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Unformatted text preview: nic properties. Dendrimer and liposome technologies are derived from well-established bottom-up synthetic techniques, built to scale using chemistry and self-assembling lipids, respectively. The top-down development path is guided to the nanoscale by fabrication tools from the electronics industry, where techniques of lithography, embossing and contact printing are used to create micron-scale array elements and fluidic pathways. These micron-sized components can be used to manipulate submicron (nanometer) amounts of material. Ultimately, nanotechnology-based products will require a convergence of the two approaches for practical use, both to engineer the nanoscale device and to interface with the outside world. The bottom-up approach permits control of the chemical and structural architecture; however, manual assembly of individual nanometer-sized components is clearly prohibitive in time and cost. Top-down technologies provide a progressive interface from the real world (meters, millimeters, microns) to control at the nanometer scale. LM much earlier in development than liposomes. Highly insoluble drugs may be reformulated as nanoparticles for more efficient and controlled uptake, as the small size may allow them to more readily diffuse through membranes. This approach was developed years ago by Elan Pharmaceuticals (Dublin, Ireland) through a top-down milling process, which is now being commercialized by NanoCrystal Technologies (King of Prussia, PA, USA). Other companies working in this field include NanoMed Pharmaceuticals (Lexington, KY, USA) and SkyePharma (London, UK), which use synthetic methods to more reliably engineer particle size. And finally, there are some interesting applications of nanoparticles for cholesterol removal, nutritional supplements and antimicrobials, which are being pursued by companies such as BioSante Pharmaceuticals (Lincolnshire, IL, USA) and NanoBio Corporation (Ann Arbor, MI, USA). Biosensors and medical devices. Nanotechnology holds great promise for innovation in biosensing, though integration and assembly may be stumbling blocks to early commercialization (Table 4). Nanotubes and nanowires have demonstrated unprecedented sensitivity for molecular detection, where surface-binding events detectably perturb the material’s electronic properties. Novel techniques of surface engineering and patterning also permit new methods of molecular detection, as shown in work using nanopore structures for single-molecule detection—with efforts from US Genomics (Woburn, MA, USA), Agilent (Palo Alto, CA, USA) and 454 Life Sciences (Branford, CT, USA). Other applications of nanoparticles include their use as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray imaging at companies such as Nanospectra Biosciences and Advance Magnetics (Cambridge, MA, USA) as well as some larger corporations, such as General Electric (Stamford, CT, USA) and Philips Medical Systems (Andover, MA, USA). Nanoparticle contrast agents can provide better image...
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This document was uploaded on 09/24/2013.

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