Constructed from alternating layers of reflective

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Unformatted text preview: ently in development at NanoPlex (Mountain View, CA, USA) and Nanosys (Palo Alto, CA, USA). Used as another form of molecular tag, they can be optically scanned as literal bar codes to differentiate molecular species. Such systems offer advantages over conventional labeling in that there are a large number of different labels that can be constructed, multiplexing is possible, and the signal is long-lived. Colloidal gold and silver are used already in molecular detection and separation, where their size can be reproducibly engineered to submicron dimensions for controlled chemical architecture and high surface-to-volume loading capacity. Companies working in this area, such as Nanosphere (Chicago, IL, USA) and Genicon Sciences (San Diego, CA, USA), are taking advantage of the optical difference between solution-bound nanoparticles and Table 2 Selected nanobiotechnology companies developing bioanalysis applications SPM Companies Platforma Hitachi High Technologies (London, UK) Technology Electron-beam lithography (on market) Imago Scientific Instruments (Madison, WI) Arrays Leap atom probe microscope (on market) Veeco (Woodbury, NY) Near-field scanning optical microscope (on market) Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA) Nanoarrays ∼10,000-fold smaller than conventional arrays (on market) Nanogen (San Diego, CA) Oligonucleotide arrays with polarized features (on market) NanoInk (Chicago, IL) Molecular tags High-density oligonucleotide (GeneChip) arrays (on market) BioForce Nanosciences (Ames, IA) Dip-pen nanolithography system (on market) Dendritic Nanotechnologies (Mt. Pleasant, MI) Dendrimers (on market) Evident Technologies (available through Ocean Semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (on market) Optics, Dunedin, FL, USA) Genicon Sciences (San Diego, CA) Two-color microarray tool kit; resonance light-scattering detection and imaging instrument NanoPlex (Mountain View, CA) Gold nanoparticle probes and detection system Quantum Dot (Hayward, CA) Microfluidics Nano-bar-codes particle kit (on market) Nanosphere (Chicago, IL) Quantum-dot conjugates (streptavidin, protein A, biotin) (on market) Microfluidics (LabChip; on market) Fluidigm (South San Francisco, CA) Multilayer soft lithography microfluidics Nanostream (Pasadena, CA) High-throughput screening platforms Surface Logix (Brighton, MA) aUnless Caliper Technologies (Mountain View, CA) High-throughput screening platforms using soft lithography and biosurface chemistry otherwise specified in parentheses, platform under development. Locations are in United States unless otherwise stated. NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY VOLUME 21 NUMBER 10 OCTOBER 2003 1139 © 2003 Nature Publishing Group http://www.nature.com/naturebiotechnology F E AT U R E aggregates formed by molecular affinity in designing assays. Drug delivery and therapeutics. Because of their size, nanoscale assemblies offer unique opportunities in drug delivery and in therapeutics (Table 3). Early ‘cosmeceutical’ products have included liposomes (lipidb...
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This document was uploaded on 09/24/2013.

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