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Unit 1 Study GuideChinese Dynasties (earliest to latest):1.Xia Dynasty2.Shang Dynasty3.Zhou Dynasty (Western, then Eastern)4.Qin Dynasty5.Han Dynasty6.Sui Dynasty7.Tang Dynasty8.Song Dynasty9.Jin Dynasty10. Yuan Dynasty•Civilization: a surplus of food, population density, government and culture•Huang He = Yellow RiveroEarly dynasties develop along the Yellow RiveroFloods deposit soil, allows for crop development•Early Neolithic cultures in China: Yangshao and Longsham•Xia DynastyoNo written records of this dynastyoFew artifacts to support it’s existence•Shang DynastyoCapital: AnyangoBronze working to make tools, weapons, potteryoAncestor worship, God known as DioPictogram writingoUsed chariots for transportation•Oracle bones = oldest known example of Chinese writing•Zhou DynastyoKing Wen and his son King WuoMandate of Heaven: heavens decide on ruler, stays as long as he maintains orderUsed as reasoning to overthrow the Shang DynastyoDecentralized governmentoCalvalry instead of chariotsoWestern Zhou (earlier) – Zhou at their heightoEastern Zhou (later) – constant fighting, falls apart•Warring States Periodo7 major independent states fighting for controloGolden age of Chinese thoughtoThe Art of Warby Sun Zi – stresses knowledge not numbers. Know not only aboutyourself but also about your surroundings in order to win•Five Classics: changes, history, oaths, ritual, spring/autumn annuals
•Four Books: 2 parts of the book of rights, the analects and Mencius’ text•Kong Fuzi = ConfuciousoTaughtThe Analects: not his writing, but recording of a conversation w/ student•Confucian BeliefsoFamily – filial piety: the respect for one’s parents and ancestorsoBasic relationships – father/son, ruler/subject, husband/wife, elder/younger brother,friend/friendoJunzi– people should be courteousoRen– humanity, benevolence, care about othersoLi– etiquette, tradition, etc•Confucius’ DisciplesoMencius – human nature is good, cannot be lost,Ren, discovering yourself will leadto cultivating good human natureoXunzi – human nature is ultimately evil,Li, one can only obtain benevolence throughdefeat of your true selfoPeople eventually agree more with Mencius•Daoism – passive but can do everythingoHumans should live in harmony with natureoOne must retreat from politics and gov’toPeople should live as simply as possible, away from ambitionoLaozi – wroteDaodejingoDao– the WayoWuwei– “not doing”•LegalismoHan Fei wroteThe Five Vermin(scholars, speechmakers, swordsman, those againstmilitary service and merchants)oPurely a political philosophy – tighten state control over peopleoArguments:Pro - Agriculture and armed forcesAnti-intellectualPunishment on small crimesoMany resented Legalist views, killed Han Fei•Qin DynastyoShi Huangdi (Ying Zheng) – first emperor of ChinaoEmphasize merit over hereditary bloodlineo