Unit 1 Study Guide - Unit 1 Study Guide Chinese Dynasties(earliest to latest 1 Xia Dynasty 2 Shang Dynasty 3 Zhou Dynasty(Western then Eastern 4 Qin

Unit 1 Study Guide - Unit 1 Study Guide Chinese...

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Unit 1 Study Guide Chinese Dynasties (earliest to latest): 1. Xia Dynasty 2. Shang Dynasty 3. Zhou Dynasty (Western, then Eastern) 4. Qin Dynasty 5. Han Dynasty 6. Sui Dynasty 7. Tang Dynasty 8. Song Dynasty 9. Jin Dynasty 10. Yuan Dynasty Civilization: a surplus of food, population density, government and culture Huang He = Yellow River o Early dynasties develop along the Yellow River o Floods deposit soil, allows for crop development Early Neolithic cultures in China: Yangshao and Longsham Xia Dynasty o No written records of this dynasty o Few artifacts to support it’s existence Shang Dynasty o Capital: Anyang o Bronze working to make tools, weapons, pottery o Ancestor worship, God known as Di o Pictogram writing o Used chariots for transportation Oracle bones = oldest known example of Chinese writing Zhou Dynasty o King Wen and his son King Wu o Mandate of Heaven: heavens decide on ruler, stays as long as he maintains order Used as reasoning to overthrow the Shang Dynasty o Decentralized government o Calvalry instead of chariots o Western Zhou (earlier) – Zhou at their height o Eastern Zhou (later) – constant fighting, falls apart Warring States Period o 7 major independent states fighting for control o Golden age of Chinese thought o The Art of War by Sun Zi – stresses knowledge not numbers. Know not only about yourself but also about your surroundings in order to win Five Classics: changes, history, oaths, ritual, spring/autumn annuals
Four Books: 2 parts of the book of rights, the analects and Mencius’ text Kong Fuzi = Confucious o Taught The Analects : not his writing, but recording of a conversation w/ student Confucian Beliefs o Family – filial piety: the respect for one’s parents and ancestors o Basic relationships – father/son, ruler/subject, husband/wife, elder/younger brother, friend/friend o Junzi – people should be courteous o Ren – humanity, benevolence, care about others o Li – etiquette, tradition, etc Confucius’ Disciples o Mencius – human nature is good, cannot be lost, Ren , discovering yourself will lead to cultivating good human nature o Xunzi – human nature is ultimately evil, Li , one can only obtain benevolence through defeat of your true self o People eventually agree more with Mencius Daoism – passive but can do everything o Humans should live in harmony with nature o One must retreat from politics and gov’t o People should live as simply as possible, away from ambition o Laozi – wrote Daodejing o Dao – the Way o Wuwei – “not doing” Legalism o Han Fei wrote The Five Vermin (scholars, speechmakers, swordsman, those against military service and merchants) o Purely a political philosophy – tighten state control over people o Arguments: Pro - Agriculture and armed forces Anti-intellectual Punishment on small crimes o Many resented Legalist views, killed Han Fei Qin Dynasty o Shi Huangdi (Ying Zheng) – first emperor of China o Emphasize merit over hereditary bloodline o

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