Stigsdotter Dissertation Landscape Health

Gardens with respect to presentation of evidence

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Unformatted text preview: With respect to presentation of evidence-based design guidelines, the literature on healing gardens for patients with Alzheimer’s is on the forefront. Relying on case studies, Mooney and Nicell (1992) present, in their article The Importance of Environment for Alzheimer Residents, the primary importance of how paths are drawn and how demarcations are formed. This was later further developed into clear design guidelines in Ellen-Elisabeth Grefsrød’s book Eldres liv og hagens visdom (Life of the Elderly – Wisdom of the Garden, 2002). Literature on planning of urban living environments to promote health The Ten Books on Architecture by Vitruvius constitutes one of the most influential works in the area of architecture and city planning. The work is thought to have been completed around 15 BC and has, since that time, served as a model for other texts on architecture, city planning and art as well as provided essential concepts and formulations (Mårtelius, 1989). With regard to laying out a fortified city, Vitruvius states that healthfulness is the first requirement the architect must consider (Vitruvius, 1999). He invoked archaic methods of determining whether a place was healthful. By sacrificing grazing animals and analyzing their organs, he believed one could determine whether or not a given site was healthful (ibid). A healthful site for building a city should, therefore, ” /…/ be elevated, not cloudy, not liable to frost, facing those regions of the sky which are neither hot nor cold but temperate.” (ibid, p. 26). As concerns the comprehensive body of literature on people and their urban living environments, most students of architecture and landscape architecture encounter some of the works that, in addition to those of Vitruvius, are considered classics. These include: Camillo Sitte’s Der Städtebau nach seinen künsterlischen Grundsätzen from 1889, Ebenezer Howard’s Garden Cities of Tomorrow from 1898, Le Corbusier’s Urbansime from 1925, Lewis Mumford’s Culture of Cities from 1938, Kevin Lynchs The image of the city from 1960 and Jan Gehl’s Livet mellem husene from 1971. It is worth noting that these classic works consist primarily of expert statements (Rådberg & Johansson, 1997) and consider only fleetingly human health and well-being. These expert statements often have a fairly weak foundation in the form of systematic observations (ibid). The oldest of these theoretical efforts lack any properly founded empirical observations, leading to a situation in which the values and ideals of different experts are pitted against one another (ibid). The two most modern works, those of Lynch (1960) and Gehl (1971), stand out from the earlier efforts in that they take seriously people’s needs and environmental psychology. Both Lynch and Gehl are architects and researchers, and their work shows how research findings may be 13 made applicable for use by practicing architects and planners. Their work is based on solid data and revea...
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This document was uploaded on 09/24/2013.

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