Albert Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory Emma Wagner and Jennine Kottwitz Brief Overview Albert Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory states that people with high self-efficacy believe they have the ability to change their environment. It also states that the mere belief in one’s self can boost the chances of achieving change. Albert Bandura himself, states in his book, Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies , “The ability to affect outcomes makes them predictable. Predictability fosters adoptive preparedness. Inability to exert influence over things that adversely affect one’s life breeds apprehension, apathy, or despair.” In other words, those that believe in themselves and can change their environment, thus creating more self-efficacy and vice versa. Bandura believed that there were four sources used to acquire and change one’s self-efficacy; first through enactive attainments or performance, then through vicarious experiences which is completed by observing others succeed, third through verbal persuasion or persuading the audience to believe in one’s ideas, and lastly through physiological arousal which is the stage where one judges their self-efficacy by how they perceive their anxiety in certain situations. The main principle of this theory can be summed up best by Henry Ford and Walt Disney. According to Henry Ford, “Whether you think you can, or you think you can’t—you’re right.” And as Walt Disney famously puts it, “If you can dream it, you can do it.” Basic Tenants The self-efficacy theory is part of a much larger social cognitive theory. It was created by Albert Bandura in attempt to broaden the social learning theory, which later evolved into the social cognitive theory. Bandura discovered that there was one key element missing from the theory and that was self-belief and the
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