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Unformatted text preview: water barrier, cell signalers (many hormones) Fats are 2 part molecules: glycerol + faey acids –  1. Glycerol: 3- C alcohol w/ hydroxyl group on each C –  2. Faey acid(s): carboxyl group aeached to a C- skeleton •  2 parts bonded by dehydra*on OR hydrolysis rxn. •  Stored in adipose Hssue –cushioning, insulaHon, and energy storage Faey acid (palmiHc acid) Glycerol 4 •  Triglycerides: three faey acids are joined via dehydra*on rxn. Fig. 3.6 •  Faey acids vary in C chain length & in #, locaHon(s) of 2x bonds •  Saturated: no double bonds (a)  Saturated fat •  Animals; solid @ room temp •  Unsaturated: >1 double bond •  Plants; liquid @ room temp •  Trans fat: like a saturated fat; arHficially hardened (=hydrogenated) (b) Unsaturated fat Fig. 5- 12 cis double bond causes bending Phospholipids •  Main component of cell membranes (lipid bilayer) •  2 faey acids (tail), glycerol, phosphate, N group (head) •  Amphiphilic –  hydrophilic head, 2 hydrophobic tails hydrophilic hydrophobic 5 –  In H2O , self- assemble into bilayer, w/hydrophobic tails poinHng toward interior wiredscience/2008/09/ biologists-on-t.html? npu=1&mbid=yhp Fig. 3.7- 1 Steroids are a diverse class of lipids •  4- C rings, vary in func*onal groups & double bonds •  Cholesterol: 2 important funcHons: 1. precursor to other steroid hormones 2. component of cell membranes ­  Excess contributes to atherosclerosis (body makes ~80% (varies among individuals); remainder from diet) 5.4: Proteins- many structures / varied funcHons •  Most diverse funcHons of biomolecules (100k+ types) •  Control all rxns., acHviHes of cell: •  Enzymes: catalyze (speed) reacHons –  Any given animal cell ~ 4,000+ enzymes! Cell’s cytoskeleton Transport across membrane 6 Most enzymes are proteins •  Enzymes act as catalysts to speed up chem rxns. (would occur, but too slowly) •  Not used up, may catalyze several rxns. /sec Substrate (sucrose) Glucose OH Fructose Enzyme (sucrase) H2O H O Animation: Enzymes •  Also move, protect, support, defend, transport cell & components Compare Table 5.1 Amino Acids are building blocks of proteins α carbon •  Organic w/carboxyl and amino groups •  differ due to varied side chains (R groups) •  Why proteins...
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2013 for the course BIO 111 taught by Professor Jefferyray during the Fall '13 term at North Alabama.

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