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h ions into thylakoid creates

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Unformatted text preview: synthase (enzyme) in thylakoid is ”turbine” H+ moves across membrane by some components of electron transfer chain water is split in the thylakoid compartment H2O e– Gradients propel H+ through ATP synthases; ATP forms by phosphate- group transfer acceptor ATP SYNTHASE ADP ATP + P i PHOTOSYSTEM II 2 photosystems cooperate: PSII, PSI (absorb different wave- lengths [P680, P700]) •  1st e- boost by sunlight: PSII passes energized e- to ETC (splits H2O to replenish e- ) •  2nd boost by sunlight in PSI, e- ’s transferred to NADP+ (reduced to NADPH) 1st transfer chain PotenGal Energy e– H2O 2nd transfer chain e– e– e– NADPH (Photosystem I) (Photosystem II) 1/2O2 + 2H+ •  PSII → ETC → PSI (discovered 1st) e– ATP Analogy: e- boosted to higher energy levels, accepted by NADP+ e– e– NADPH e– ETC makes ATP e– n Photo e– Photon e– Photosystem II Photosystem I Fig. 10- 14 6 •  Source of e- ’s ? •  Fate of e- ’s? •  ATP? STROMA (low H+ conc.) •  Spliqng of H2O (oxidized) •  NADPH •  Produced by chemiosmosis Cytochrome Photosystem I Photosystem II complex Light 4 H+ Light Fd NADP+ reductase H2O THYLAKOID SPACE (high H+ conc.) – e– e 1 1/2 O2 +2 H+ NADP+ + H+ Pc 2 4 H+ To Calvin Cycle Thylakoid membrane STROMA + concentraGon) (low H Fig. 10- 17 3 NADPH Pq •  O2? ATP synthase ADP + P i ATP H+ •  By- product of rxn •  Summary: light rxns move e- ’s from H2O to ___, generate ATP via H+ conc. gradient, –  ATP and NADPH produced on side facing stroma, where Calvin cycle will take place 10.3: Calvin cycle: produces carbohydrates “synthesis” •  Series of rxns. w/ many enzymes, occurs in stroma •  Input: ATP, NADPH, CO2 (sunlight?- no) output: glucose derivaGves (….starch, cellulose) •  Cycle: regenerates starGng material aser molecules enter and leave cycle 7 Calvin Cycle: series of rxn. produces carbs, returns again •  Inorganic C converted into organic C •  Carbon enters as CO2, leaves as a sugar named G3P (glyceraldehyde- 3- phosphate) •  3 phases: 1. Carbon fixaJon (CO2 into organic molecule) 2. ReducJon (energizes sugar) 3. RegeneraJon of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP) • Calvin Cycle must occur 3x for 1 G3P (glucose precursor) CO2 (1-C) + RuBP (5-C) molecule • How many G3P 3 × 5-C nee...
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