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Unformatted text preview: ly for statehood Slavery Banned The “Critical Period” 17811789
The “Critical Period” 17811789 Biggest weakness of the Confederation Period – Inability to solve financial problems Lacked the power to tax 52 million dollar war debt 12 million owed to other countries 40 million owed here at home Critical Period 17811789
Critical Period 17811789 Weak in foreign affairs John Adams named minister to Great Britain Attempts to get trade agreements – failed British flood American markets with trade goods – easy credit Brits closed West Indies to American trade Leads to trade deficit Congress not given the power to regulate trade Critical Period 17811789
Critical Period 17811789 Promise – Repay British merchants perwar debts – states not complying Congress powerless British do not leave frontier forts States not getting along Border disputes, taxing each other, each printing their own paper money Mount Vernon Conference
Mount Vernon Conference March 1785 George Washington invites delegates from Virginia and Maryland to his home to work out their disputes over the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay Both agree to treat the Potomac River as a “common highway” Agree to erect lighthouses, beacons, and buoys in Chesapeake Bay – both states pay equal amounts to accomplish this Annapolis Convention Annapolis Convention James Madison – Virginia and Alexander Hamilton – New York Both men wanted a stronger central government than the one already in place Call upon all states to send delegates to Annapolis, MD in September 1786 Only 5 states sent delegates Shays’ Rebellion
Shays’ Rebellion Backcountry farmers in MA are having problems Heavy taxes are being collected by the state to pay their war debt Depressed prices for their goods at market Daniel Shays leads a group of men to Boston to ask for relief Asked for Barter System to help pay taxes Hold off paying taxes until economy stronger Shays’ Rebellion
Shays’ Rebellion State does not listen Banks start foreclosing on many farms and small business Army of 1200 unite under Shays and march on Boston Militia called out Several of Shays followers killed or captured Many felt the country was falling into anarchy – something must be done Philadelphia Convention
Philadelphia Convention Result of Shays’ Rebellion Call goes out for states to send delegates to Philadelphia Meeting to start May 1787 Mission – Revise the Articles of Confederation 12 states sent 55 men Rhode Island did not participate Constitutional Convention
Constitutional Convention James Madison – “Father of the Constitution” Kept journal of proceedings Proposed the “Virginia Plan” which became the foundation for the Constitution 3 branches of govt. – Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Constitutional Convention Constitutional Convention Lower House – state would be represented in proportion of their population Upper House – Members would be chosen by the lower house – lacked rigid system of representation Large states vs. Small states Means a state like Virginia might have 10 times more delegates than Georgia Constitutional Convention Constitutional Convention The Great Compromise –Connecticut Compromise Lower house – House of Representatives Members elected in proportion to population Elected by the people Census taken every 10 years Upper House – Senate 2 members regardless of population Members chosen by state legislatures Constitutional Convention Constitutional Convention Debate over slavery kept to a minimum How to count slaves for purposes of representation 3/5 Compromise Slaves were counted as 3/5 of a person 1807 External Slave Trade Banned Constitutional Convention
Constitutional Convention Federalist Papers 85 Alexander Hamilton – 50 James Madison – 30 John Jay – 5 AntiFederalist Papers – 84 Various writers Bill of Rights...
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