Final Reproduction

Final Reproduction - Reproduction Reproduction Reproduction...

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Reproduction
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Reproduction Reproduction is not necessary for individual, it’s necessary for species Includes birth, development of primary and secondary characteristics, and care of offspring
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Reproductive Organs Primary: Gonads (testes, ovaries) Produce the reproductive cells ( gametes: sperm, ova) Secrete sex hormones (testosterone, estrogens, progesterone) Accessory reproductive organs: Duct systems that the sperm and ova travel through Glands lining the ducts
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Control of the Reproductive Cycle Regulation begins with the brain: Neural inputs stimulate hypothalamus to secrete GnRH GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH FSH and LH stimulate the gonads to secrete sex hormones for gametogenesis Some sex hormones stimulate the reproductive organs *3 HORMONE CHAIN
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Stages of Reproduction Fetus to infant: GnRH (gonadotropin) and sex hormones are secreted at high levels Infancy to puberty: secretion rates are very low Puberty: hormonal secretion rates high, menstrual cycle begins, reproduction possible Adult to elderly: reproductive function diminishes because gonads become less
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Sex Differentiation Genes determine testes versus ovaries The SRY is where variation occurs Default=female (b/c have to have testosterone to be male) Males have sex determining region on the Y chromosome
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Male Reproductive System Primary structures: paired testes Accessory structures: epididymis, vas deferens, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands Semen: composed of spermatozoa and fluids from the above structures
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Where do sperm come from? Spermatozoa form in the seminiferous tubules, travel through the rete testis, through the epididymis’ efferent ductules, then through the vas deferens The lumen of the seminiferous tubules contain mature sperm
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How sperm are made FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and testosterone stimulate the Sertoli cells that surround the seminiferous tubule Sertoli cells also play role in nutrients, as chemical messenger, stimulate proliferation and differentiation The Sertoli cell is split into 2 compartments: Basal compartment: below the tight junction, where the primary spermatocytes are
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Note dropout! Begins at puberty 64 days 30 million per day Spermatogenesis generates haploid gametes capable of fertilizing ova.
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Sperm Transport Sperm travel down the pathway up to the ductules due to pressure from the Sertoli cells releasing fluid into the seminiferous tubules From the ductules through the vas deferens, sperm is driven by peristaltic contractions of smooth muscle in the epididymis and vas deferens Vasectomy cuts the vas deferens
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Erection Input from penis mechanoreceptors and descending CNS pathways triggered by thoughts, emotions, and sensory input trigger neurons to the penis to increase release nitric oxide and decrease activity of sympathetic neurons This causes the penis arteries to dilate Erection includes compression of the veins Descending control can overide spinal reflex
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Final Reproduction - Reproduction Reproduction Reproduction...

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