Final Reproduction

Activity of sympathetic neurons this causes the penis

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: eries to dilate • Erection includes compression of the veins • Descending control can overide spinal reflex Ejaculation • • • Caused by sympathetic innervation of smooth muscle, but erection includes use of urethral smooth muscles and skeletal muscle Sperm move through the epididymis and vas deferens to the urethra Seminal vesicle and prostate are stimulated to secrete liquid: – Seminal vesicles secrete fructose to provide energy for the sperm. This makes up most of Sperm Motililty • • Sperm have a flagellum that moves ONCE the sperm are released in the female Upon contact with the egg, the acrosome of the spermatozoan contains enzymes for fertilization Male Reproductive Regulation • • GnRH is secreted in pulses FSH and LH are secreted from the same tell type in the anterior pituitary, but have different targets: – FSH stimulates Sertoli cells • • – Sertoli cells are vital to spermatogenesis, but also secrete inhibin Inhibin has negative feedback on the anterior pituitary (FSH only) LH stimulates Leydig cells 2 feedback pathways Active Forms of Testosterone • Enzymes can convert testosterone into active forms such as: – DHT – Estradiol Estradiol is the active form of testosterone that functions in the brain because it can go past the blood brain barrier and testosterone can’t This can be useful because in treating prostate cancer because DHT stimulates prostate cancer cells and if you inhibit the enzyme that converts testosterone into DHT then the prostate cancer cells wont be stimulated • • Female Reproductive Anatomy • • • Primary organ= ovary Accessory organs= fallopian tubes (oviducts), uterus, cervix, vagina Function of ovaries: – Produce gametes – Develop mature gametes – Expel mature eggs – Excrete hormones Eggs • All the eggs that you will ever have are present in the ovaries at birth (2-4 million) • Eggs are stored in follicles in the ovary • Only about 400 will be ovulated • The older the eggs are, the greater the chance of chromosomal abnormalities Oogenesis • • • • The production of haploid gametes in the female The full sequence of meiosis is not completed until fertilization Meiotic arrest occurs until the primary oocyte is meiotically divided into the secondary oocyte (not until puberty) The second meiotic division occurs on the secondary oocyte and this is not until fertilization Where do eggs come from? • The follicle, which is made up of: – Zona pellucida which coats the oocyte and contains glycoproteins necessary for fertilization • – Granulosa cells which coat surround the zona • – present in the primary follicle Theca cells that surround the granulosa cells • – Present in the primordial follicle Present in the preantral follicle Antrum, a fluid filled pocket that is in the More on eggs • • • Several primordial eggs mature each month, but only one becomes dominant This dominance probably occurs because of local estrogen Non-dominant follicl...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 09/27/2013 for the course ZOO 305 taught by Professor Schaeffer during the Spring '08 term at Miami University.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online