pGLO Transformation LabPlease use the pGLO student lab manual to complete this pre-lab assignment. Note that pages S-1 through S-4 are backgound information for the Carolina Transformation Lab. We will be using Bio-Rad’s pGLO lab. However, the CarolinaLab Background information is a very good tool to help with learning about Bacterial Transformation. This is why it is included as the first part of your student lab manual.Part 1 - Carolina Transformation Lab - Background Information (p. S-1 - S-4)A.Transformation and Its Role in Discovering the Function of DNA1.What is Bacterial Transformation?In molecular biology and genetics, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane2.Describe Griffith’s experiment with Streptococcus pneumoniae. (See if you can remember most of the experiment before reading about it!!)Griffith used two strains of pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria which infect mice – a type III-S (smooth) which was virulent, and a type II-R (rough) strain which was nonvirulent. ... In this experiment, bacteria from the III-S strain were killed by heat, and their remains were added to II-R strain bacteria.3.What did Avery, McCarty, and MacLeod show the “transforming principle” that caused the transformation was and how did they do this?Avery, MacLeod and McCarty identified DNA as the "transforming principle" while studying Streptococcus pneumoniae, bacteria that can cause pneumonia. ... In their blood, Griffith found live bacteria of the deadly S type. The S strain extract somehow had "transformed" the R strain bacteria to S form.B.Natural Transformation - an Example of Lateral (Horizontal) Transfer of Genetic Material1.Describe the mechanisms that Bacteria naturally have for transporting DNA into their cells.Genetic exchanges among bacteria occur by several mechanisms. In transformation, the recipient bacterium takes up extracellular donor DNA. In conjugation, the donor bacterium transfers DNA to the recipient by mating. Recombination is the rearrangement of donor and recipient genomes to form new,hybrid genomes.2.List 2 reasons bacteria take up free DNA from the environment.
3.Describe how Neisseria gonorrhea does this and how it harms humans.Infection that spreads to the joints and other areas of your body. The bacterium that causes gonorrhea can spread through the bloodstream and infect other parts ofyour body, including your joints. Fever, rash, skin sores, joint pain, swelling and stiffness are possible results. Increased risk of HIV/AIDS.4.What is lateral (horizontal) gene transfer and what does it play a role in?2 Role of Horizontal Gene Transfer. HGT is also known as lateral gene transfer in which one adult bacterium transfers its genes to another either through conjugation, transformation, or transduction. Conjugation is direct transfer of genes between bacteria through conjugation tube.