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Midterm ReviewMechanical and Organic Solidarity: Emile Durkheim (1858-1917). French Sociologist, One of the Founding Fathers of Sociology. Studied division of labor, religion, suicide, etc. Mechanical Solidarity and Organic Solidarity compared traditional and modern societies. Mechanical Solidarity is associated with traditional societies, simple division of labor, bonded by collective consciousness. Organic solidarity is associated with more modern societies, high division of labor, social roles more complex and differentiated, more individualism, bonds based on collective ideals, which are internalized through social institutions (eg: school, church). Functional System: Durkheim, Parsons, Merton. Treat behavior as a function of certain underlying forces and needs and of the particular set of internalized norms and values characteristic of a society. People’s motives and behavior are largely a function of the social values they internalize. Systems adjusting to restore equilibrium. Support of status quo in order to maintain equilibrium. System of interrelated partsThe Unit Act: Parson’s theory of Action. Parson’s action theory starts with a role player or actor, the actor is motivated to spend energy in reaching a desirable goal or end, as defined by the cultural system, the action takes place in a situation, which includes means(facilities, tools, or resources) and conditions(obstacles that arise in the pursuit of the goal)The AGIL Scheme:Parsons. AGIL otherwise known as the Functional Systems Problems. Parsons argues that all action systems face four major problems: Adaptation(need to secure sufficient resources from the environment and distribute them throughout the system), Goal Attainment (need to mobilized its resources and energies to attain system goals and to establish priorities among them), Integration (need to coordinate, adjust, and regulate relationships among various actors or units within the system, thus preventing mutual interference, in order to keep the system functioning., and Latent Pattern Maintenance – tension management (need to provide mechanisms for internal tension management. Parsons considers them to be the prerequisites for social equilibrium. ***Role Complementarity:Parsons. Roles and systems complement one another?Manifest and Latent Functions:Merton (1910-2002) Student of Parson’s at Harvard. Set out to fill in the banks between raw empiricism and grand or all inclusive theory. Middle Range Theory. EG Hopee rain dance: Manifest function to create rain. Latent function social. Manifest functions: consequences people intend or expect“those objective consequences for a specialized unit (person, subgroup, social or cultural system) which contribute to its adjustment or adaptation and were so intended(Merton p. 305)Latent functions: hidden, unrecognized functions “unintended and unrecognized consequences of the same order” (Merton p.305)
Funtional Alternatives: Merton. There are preconditions functionally necessary for a society but