Mechanical and Organic Solidarity
: Emile Durkheim (1858-1917).
Sociologist, One of the Founding Fathers of Sociology. Studied division of labor,
religion, suicide, etc.
Mechanical Solidarity and Organic Solidarity compared traditional
and modern societies.
Mechanical Solidarity is associated with traditional societies,
simple division of labor, bonded by collective consciousness.
Organic solidarity is
associated with more modern societies, high division of labor, social roles more complex
and differentiated, more individualism, bonds based on collective ideals, which are
internalized through social institutions (eg: school, church).
: Durkheim, Parsons, Merton.
Treat behavior as a function of certain
underlying forces and needs and of the particular set of internalized norms and values
characteristic of a society.
People’s motives and behavior are largely a function of the
social values they internalize.
Systems adjusting to restore equilibrium.
status quo in order to maintain equilibrium.
System of interrelated parts
The Unit Act
: Parson’s theory of Action.
Parson’s action theory starts with a role player
, the actor is motivated to spend energy in reaching a desirable goal or
defined by the cultural system, the action takes place in a
, which includes
facilities, tools, or resources) and
(obstacles that arise in the pursuit of
The AGIL Scheme:
AGIL otherwise known as the Functional Systems
Parsons argues that all action systems face four major problems:
need to secure sufficient resources from the environment and distribute them
throughout the system)
need to mobilized its resources and energies
to attain system goals and to establish priorities among them)
, Integration (
coordinate, adjust, and regulate relationships among various actors or units within the
system, thus preventing mutual interference, in order to keep the system functioning.
and Latent Pattern Maintenance – tension management (
need to provide mechanisms
for internal tension management.
Parsons considers them to be the prerequisites for
Roles and systems complement one another?
Manifest and Latent Functions:
Student of Parson’s at Harvard.
Set out to fill in the banks between raw empiricism and grand or all inclusive theory.
Middle Range Theory.
EG Hopee rain dance: Manifest function to create rain.
Manifest functions: consequences people intend or expect
“those objective consequences for a specialized unit (person, subgroup, social or
cultural system) which contribute to its adjustment or adaptation
and were so
(Merton p. 305)
Latent functions: hidden, unrecognized functions “unintended and unrecognized
consequences of the same order” (Merton p.305)