Module_55-59 - Module 55 psychoanalytic and psychodynamic...

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Module 55psychoanalytic and psychodynamic theoriesWhat is personality?Psychologists have varied ways to view and study personality — our characteristicspattern of thinking, feeling, and actingSigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory proposed that childhood sexuality andunconscious motivations influence personalityTrait theories examine characteristics patterns of behavior (traits)Social-cognitive theories explore the interaction between people traits (including theirthinking) and their social contextPsychodynamic theoriesPsychodynamic theories of personality view human behavior as a dynamic interactionbetween the conscious mind and unconscious mind, including associated motives andconflictsFreud’s psychoanalytic perspective: exploring the unconsciousFreud speculated that lost feeling in ones hand might be caused by fear of touchingones genitals; that unexplained blindness or deafness might be caused by not wanting tosee or hear something that might be caused by severe anxietyHe assumed that a line of mental dominoes had falls from his patients distant past totheir troubled presentFreud believed that free association would allow him to retrace that line, following achain of thought leading into the patients unconsciousThere, painful unconscious memories, often from childhood, could be retrieved,reviewed, and releasedPersonality structureTheID’sunconscious physic energy constantly strives to satisfy basic drives to survive,reproduce, and aggressThe id operates on the pleasure principle: it seeks immediate gratificationAs theegodevelops, the young child responds to the real world.The ego operates on the reality principle, seeks to gratify and the ids impulses in realisticways that will bring long-term pleasureThe ego contains our party conscious perceptions, thoughts, judgements, and memoriesFreud theorized, a child’s ego recognizes the demands of the new alt emergingsuperego, the voice of our morals compass that force the ego to consider not only thereal but also the idealThe superego focuses on how we ought to behaveIt strives for perfection, judging actions and producing positive feelings of pride ornegative feelings of guiltPersonality development
Personality forms during the life’s first few yearsChildren pass through a series of psychosexual stages, during which the Id’s pleasureseeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of the body called erogenouszonesConflict unresolved during earlier psychosecual stages could surface as maladaptivebehavior in the adult yearsAt any point in the oral, anal, or phallic stages, strong conflict could lock, orfixate, thepersons pleasure-seeking energies in that stageA Person who had been either orally overindulged or deprived (perhaps by abrupt, earlyweaning) might fixate at the oral stageDefense mechanismsAnxiety is the price we pay for civilizationAs members of social groups, we must control our sexual and aggressive impulses, not

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Term
Summer
Professor
Vezzay

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