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Unformatted text preview: egree distinguished by their being directed at a person, rather than at a state of affairs. 1.7.5 Participle There are several parts of the verb system which function as if they were different parts of speech (in the case of a participle, an
adjective). In grammar, the PARTICIPLE is the term for two verb forms, the PRESENT PARTICIPLE (the “-ing” participle) and
the PAST PARTICIPLE (the “-ed” participle, also ending in “-d’ and “-t”). Both participles may be used like adjectives, but only if
the participle indicates some sort of permanent characteristic: “running water”, “the missing link”, “lost property”.
The PRESENT PARTICIPLE ends in “-ing” and is used in combination with the auxiliary “be” for the progressive continuous, as
in: “am driving”, “has been talking”, etc.
The PAST PARTICIPLE ends in “-ed”, “-d” or “-t” for all regular verbs and many irregular verbs, but many irregular verbs end in
“-en” and “-n” (as in, “stolen” and “known”) or with a change in the middle vowel (as in, “sung”). 22.214.171.124 Present Participle The present participle ends in -ing. Like an adjective, it may be used to form a predicate with the verb to be:
Her feelings for Bob were burgeoning quickly.
She is stunning in that dress.
Used as an adjective, it holds the normal adjectival position: www.manhattanreview.com c 1999 - 2008 Manhattan Review Sentence Correction Guide – Grammar Review 21 Her burgeoning feelings for Bob surprised her.
The stunning woman looked straight at me.
Participles are commonly found in phrases alongside the main part of the sentence:
Burgeoning rapidly, her feelings for Bob rose to an untenable level.
If there is no appropriate noun, the sentence becomes nonsensical. The falsely assigned participle is known as ‘dangling’ or ‘misrelated’:
Wrong: Burgeoning rapidly, she was soon unable to control her feelings for Bob.
As we will discuss in the Sentence Correction section, this is one of the most common errors on the GMAT, so learn to recognize a
misplaced modiﬁer (dangling participle), and you will have great success with these questions. 126.96.36.199 Past Participle The past participle ends in -(e)d or -t in most verbs. A few archaic strong forms remain; these are verbs which make the past tense
by changing the internal vowel, e.g., write, wrote; see, saw. These have participles that end in -(e)n, e.g. written, seen. The past
participle forms a compound tense (perfect) with the addition of the verb to have. This denotes the perfected or completed action:
I have decided to leave you.
It is useful to be able to recognize tenses in the Sentence Correction section, because another of the most common errors on the
GMAT is changing tenses needlessly in the middle of a sentence. Make sure that the answer you select does not have a change of
tense which is not justiﬁed by the meaning of the sentence.
Used adjectivally, however, the past participle may also form a predicate w...
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